This book discusses the global use of virgin aggregates and CO2 polluter Portland cement. Given the global sustainability agenda, much of the demand for these two sets of materials can be substantially reduced through the appropriate use of waste materials, thereby conserving natural resources, energy and CO2 emissions. Realistically, this change can only be realized and sustained through engineering ingenuity and new concepts in design. Although a great deal of research has been published over the last 50 years, it remains fragmented and ineffective. This book develops a single global knowledge-base, encouraging greater use of selected waste streams.