This book explains how religious beliefs and practices can influence the wealth of nations. Do countries with stronger beliefs in heaven and hell grow faster economically? Does religious participation matter? Why do some countries experience secularization while others are religiously vibrant? The authors draw on a long record of pioneering research to examine these and other aspects of the economics of religion. They assert that places with firm beliefs in heaven and hell and more time spent in religious activities tend to be more productive and experience faster growth, and that religiosity both influences and is influenced by economic performance. Dimensions of economic development-such as urbanization, education, health, and fertility-matter too, interacting differently with religiosity, along with state regulation and subsidization of religion. Timely and incisive, this volume provides fresh insight into the vital interplay between religion, markets, and economic development.