Throughout history, agriculture and natural resources have been used for the production of food, feed, fibre, fuel, and environmental goods. Recent developments in demand both in terms of quantity and quality, technology, and traditional energy and chemistry markets have reinforced the demand for non-food applications. These developments, in combination with increased consumer demands for various food characteristics, have led to a rapidly growing and globally integrated bio-economy. This book introduces and contains the plenary papers on the opportunities and challenges for the bio-economy that were presented at the 28th triennial conference of the International Association of Agricultural Economists (IAAE) in Brazil. The following aspects of the bio-economy are covered: finance, volatility, poverty, conflict, productivity, investment, resource constraints and governance.