The cognitive and behavioral implications of sleep deprivation have been noted in the medical literature for many years. In addition, emerging research continues to demonstrate the contribution of sleep deprivation to some of the most common and costly health conditions today. Sleep Deprivation and Disease provides clinically relevant scientific information to help clinicians, public health professionals, and researchers recognize the ramifications of sleep deprivation across a broad spectrum of health topics. This timely reference covers sleep physiology, experimental approaches to sleep deprivation and measurement of its consequences, as well as health and operational consequences of sleep deprivation. Clinical challenges and areas of uncertainty are also presented in order to encourage future advancements in sleep medicine and help patients avoid the outcomes associated with the myriad causes of sleep deprivation.