Geology is the study of the history, structure, and composition of the solid Earth, and of the past and present processes that act on it. It encompasses mineralogy and stratigraphy, and includes disciplines such as geophysics and geochemistry. This volume focuses on Earth's composition, including mineralogy and crystallography; igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic petrology; economic geology; and geochemistry. It investigates Earth's structure, which concerns geophysics, structural geology, tectonics, volcanology, and geodesy. Earth's surface features and processes are also explored. Historical geology, stratigraphy, paleontology, astrogeology, and geology's practical applications such as earthquake prediction and control complete this informative resource.