Despite their widespread impact, computer networks that provide the foundation for the World Wide Web and Internet have many limitations. These networks are vulnerable to security threats, break easily, and have a limited ability to respond to changing conditions. Recent research on overcoming these limitations has used biological systems for inspiration, resulting in the development of biologically-inspired computer networks. These networks are designed and developed using principles that are commonly found in natural and biological systems. BIOLOGICALLY INSPIRED NETWORKING AND SENSING: ALGORITHMS AND ARCHITECTURES offers current perspectives and trends in biologically-inspired networking, exploring various approaches aimed at improving network paradigms. Research contained within this compendium of papers and surveys introduces studies in the fields of communication networks, performance modeling, and distributed computing, as well as new advances in networking.