This fourth edition of American Presidents examines the strengths and weaknesses, the successes and failures of each chief executive, from George Washington to Barack Obama. This work presents 44 essays on the life and politics of the U.S. presidents, all arranged chronologically by administration. Each essay begins with ready reference information, including name, administration number, years served, birth and death dates, political party, vice president, and cabinet members by department. A comprehensive portrait of each president is then presented, from birth to political rise to election, term(s) in office, defeat or retirement, and death. Every essay ends with an annotated bibliography.