This volume is a result of two international workshops, namely the Second Annual Workshop on Inverse Problems and the Workshop on Large-Scale Modeling, held jointly in Sunne, Sweden from May 1-6 2012. The subject of the inverse problems workshop was to present new analytical developments and new numerical methods for solutions of inverse problems. The objective of the large-scale modeling workshop was to identify large-scale problems arising in various fields of science and technology and covering all possible applications, with a particular focus on urgent problems in\xa0theoretical and applied electromagnetics. The workshops brought together scholars, professionals, mathematicians, and programmers and specialists working in large-scale modeling problems. \xa0The contributions in this volume are reflective of these themes and will be beneficial to researchers in this area.