Archives Unbound: British and European History

This collection provides opportunities for an interdisciplinary examination of historical events in the United Kingdom and Europe. Included are US classified country reports, newspapers, pamphlets, propaganda, and many other primary sources that give insight on specific regional changes during and after the war. 

To learn more about the archives within this collection, select the menu topics below. Interested in a trial? Request one today, or contact your rep for more information.

  • Central Europe

    Occupation and Independence: The Austrian Second Republic, 1945-1963 - The experience of the Anschluss and Nazi rule deepened the commitment of Austrians to parliamentary democracy and Austrian statehood. The electorate remained divided into three political camps—socialist/Marxist, Catholic, and nationalist/liberal—but cooperation replaced extreme political polarization. Through Allied occupation, slow economic growth, dependency on Marshall Plan, the Second Republic became a stable democracy. The major political parties strove towards ending Allied occupation and restoring a fully independent Austria. Upon the termination of Allied occupation, Austria was proclaimed a neutral country, and "everlasting" neutrality was incorporated into the Constitution on October 26, 1955.

  • Colonialism

    European Colonialism in the Early 20th Century: French Colonialism in Africa: From Algeria to Madagascar, 1910-1930 - This collection comprises correspondence, studies and reports, cables, maps, and other kinds of documents related to U.S. consular activities. U.S. Consulates were listening to posts reporting on the activities of the French colonial government and the activities of the native peoples. Highlights include the beginning of an anti-colonial movement and problems along the Moroccan-Algerian border.

    European Colonialism in the Early 20th Century: German Colonies in Asia and the Pacific: From Colonialism to Japanese Mandates, 1910-1929 - German Colonial aspirations in Asia and the Pacific ended with the start of the First World War. Japanese Army forces seized German leased territories in China and the Japanese naval forces occupied the German Pacific colonies. The Treaty of Versailles legitimized Japan’s aggression and the territories were officially mandated to the Japanese government. This collection comprises correspondence, studies and reports, cables, maps, and other kinds of documents related to U.S. consular activities. U.S. Consulates were listening to posts reporting on the activities of the German colonial governments and later the Japanese mandate authorities, and the activities of the native peoples.

    European Colonialism in the Early 20th Century: German Colonies to League of Nations Mandates in Africa 1910-1929 - German colonial aspirations in Africa ended with the end of the First World War. British and French Army forces seized German colonies in Africa and British naval forces occupied the German port facilities. The Treaty of Versailles legitimized and officially mandated the former German colonies to British and French colonial authorities. This collection comprises correspondence, studies and reports, cables, maps, and other kinds of documents related to U.S. consular activities. U.S. Consulates were listening to posts reporting on the activities of the German colonial governments and later the mandate authorities, and the activities of the native peoples.

    European Colonialism in the Early 20th Century: Italian Colonies in North Africa and Aggression in East Africa, 1930-1939 - Italian colonial aspirations and policies mimicked those of other European countries during the modern period. Italian colonial policy during the period 1930-1939 was shaped more by Fascism. Fascist tenets related to governance and social policy was used in the administration and treatment of the African population in Libya, Eritrea, Somalia, and Italian East Africa. This collection comprises correspondence, studies and reports, cables, maps, and other kinds of documents related to U.S. consular activities. U.S. Consulates were listening to posts reporting on the activities of the Italian colonial governments and later the mandate authorities, and the activities of the native peoples.

    European Colonialism in the Early 20th Century: Political and Economic Consolidation of Portuguese Colonies in Africa, 1910-1929 - This collection comprises correspondence, studies and reports, cables, maps, and other kinds of documents related to U.S. consular activities. U.S. Consulates were listening to posts reporting on the activities of the Portuguese colonial government and the activities of the native peoples. Highlights include the beginning of an anti-colonial movement and the industrialization and economic exploitation of Portugal’s African colonies.

  • Eastern Europe

    Czechoslovakia from Liberation to Communist State, 1945-63: Records of the U.S. State Department Classified Files - During World War II, Czechoslovakia disappeared from the map of Europe. The re-emergence of Czechoslovakia as a sovereign state was not only the result of Allied policies but also an indication of the strength of the Czechoslovak idea. But Czechoslovakia now found itself within the Soviet sphere of influence—a fact that had to be considered in any postwar reconstruction.

    East Germany from Stalinization to the New Economic Policy, 1950-1963 - Originally microfilmed as Records of the U.S. Department of State Relating to the Internal Affairs of East Germany, this digital collection provides an in-depth look into the creation of the East German state, living conditions, and its people. Documents included in this collection are predominantly instructions to and dispatches from U.S. diplomatic, and consular personnel regarding political, military, economic, social, industrial, and other internal conditions, and events in East Germany.

    George H. W. Bush and Foreign Affairs: Bosnia and the Situation in the Former Yugoslavia - The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina came about as a result of the breakup of Yugoslavia. In Yugoslavia the national Communist party, officially called Alliance or League of Communists of Yugoslavia, was losing its ideological potency, while nationalist and separatist ideologies were on the rise in the late 1980s. Crisis erupted with the weakening of the Communist system at the end of the Cold War. This was particularly noticeable in Serbia, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and to a lesser extent in Slovenia and Republic of Macedonia. Throughout 1991 international and national political maneuvering failed to prevent Bosnia from slipping into civil war. This collection consists of comprehensive materials related to the former Yugoslavia, particularly Bosnia, and U.S. presidential decision-making. Documents constitute the complete FOIA request listed as 1998-0102-FL: Records on Bosnia and the Former Yugoslavia.

    Hungary: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1945-1963 - Hungary from the end of the Second World War to 1963 is the focus of this collection. Covered here is the critical period of the Hungarian Uprising of 1956 against the Soviet-backed government, and one of the most dramatic events of the Cold War, the flow of tens of thousands of refugees out of Hungary is tracked in many records. The documents are sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

    Poland: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1945-1963 - These documents illuminate Poland's internal affairs and include dispatches, instructions, and diplomatic correspondence dealing with topics such as political affairs and government; public order and safety; military affairs; social matters (including history and culture); economic conditions (including immigration and emigration); industry and agriculture; communications and transportation; and navigation. Because of the broad scope of these records, they both supplement and complement the coverage offered by the Department of State's own Foreign Relations of the United States series.

    Romania: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1945-1963 - Romania in the postwar Stalinist era is the subject of this archive. The Red Army swept into Romania in 1944, and in the late 1940s and 1950s the Romanian Communist Party imposed a totalitarian regime. An elaborate security system manned by the secret police and supported by a repressive prison network, enforced obedience to the party. Documents include excerpts from “International Developments of Naval Interest,” 6 February 1948, by the Office of Naval Intelligence: “Confiscation of private property in an attempt to destroy the capitalist class, heretofore limited to Rumanian businessmen, is now being extended to foreigners. One method employed by the Rumanian Government is to accuse foreign owners of ‘economic sabotage.’ …Another method being employed to seize foreign businesses is to tax them out of existence.” The documents here are sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

    Socialism and National Unity in Yugoslavia, 1945-63: Records of the U.S. State Department Classified Files - Lacking a tradition of political compromise that might forge a national consensus, Yugoslavia remained divided as World War II ended. More than three years of Nazi occupation yielded bloody fighting among three Yugoslav factions as well as with the invaders. Two results of that war had impact on the postwar condition of Yugoslavia. The first was a vivid new set of memories to kindle hostility between Serbs and Croats, the majority of whom had fought on opposite sides in the occupation years; the second was the emergence of the unifying war hero Tito, who became dictator of a nonaligned communist federation. After declaring independence from the Soviet alliance in 1948, Tito also modified Yugoslavia's Stalinist command economy by giving local worker groups limited control in a self-management system. Although ultimately dominated by the party, this system brought substantial economic growth and made Yugoslavia a model for the nonaligned world.

  • European Military History

    Afghanistan in 1919: The Third Anglo-Afghan War - This collection presents the complete files of the Political Warfare Executive (PWE) kept at the U.K. National Archives as FO 898 from its instigation to closure in 1946, along with the secret minutes of the special 1944 War Cabinet Committee "Breaking the German Will to Resist."

    Allied Propaganda in World War II and the British Political Warfare Executive - This collection presents the complete files of the Political Warfare Executive (PWE) kept at the U.K. National Archives as FO 898 from its instigation to closure in 1946, along with the secret minutes of the special 1944 War Cabinet Committee "Breaking the German Will to Resist."

    British Campaign in Mesopotamia, 1914-1918 - The Mesopotamian Campaign deserves to be far better known than it is—both in terms of its impact on the war and the subsequent course of the history of the Middle East. This new collection provides the opportunity to review the telegrams, correspondence, minutes, memoranda, and confidential prints gathered together in the India Office Military Department on Mesopotamia. In 1914 the British/Indian Army expedition to Mesopotamia set out with the modest ambition of protecting the oil concession in Southern Persia but, after numerous misfortunes, ended up capturing Baghdad and Northern Towns in Iraq. Initially, the mission was successful in seizing Basra but the British/Indian forces found themselves drawn North, becoming besieged by Turkish forces at Kut. After various failed relief attempts the British surrendered and the prisoners suffered appalling indignities and hardship, culminating in a death march to Turkey. In 1917, a new Commander-in-Chief was appointed but, as usual in Iraq, military policy kept changing. Hopes that the Russians would come into the war were dashed by the Revolution. Operations were further frustrated by the hottest of summers. Fighting against Turkish forces continued right up to the Armistice. The conduct of the Campaign was subject to a Commission of Inquiry which was highly critical of numerous individuals and the administrative arrangements.

    Conditions & Politics in Occupied Western Europe, 1940-1945 - These historical documents capture the hidden history of war-torn Europe and offer researchers, teachers, and students many new perspectives on politics, diplomacy, and everyday life in the German-occupied countries. Here is the complete record of political life in Occupied Western Europe available to the British Government during World War II from the original intelligence reports received by the British Foreign Office following the breakdown of normal diplomatic relations during wartime from class "FO 371" at The National Archives. The collection includes detailed information indexed by year and section, from the occupied states of Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, and the Vatican, and the neutral countries—Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. Some of the topics covered include the German attempts to win over important groups in occupied countries, the reaction to, and effect of, the German occupation, the propaganda struggle, the creation of the first resistance units, the repercussions of events such as the German invasion of Russia and essays on life under occupation in France, the Low Countries, and Norway.

    La Guerra Civil Española - This collection presents approximately 3,000 rare pamphlets, including publications from Spain, Portugal, Latin America, and the Philippines, as well as more than 100 German pamphlets published in Spanish. Distributed throughout Spain, Germany, Italy, the Soviet Union, and North America, the pamphlets in this collection represent the opinions and philosophies of the insurgents, anarchists, socialists, and communists. The pamphlets contain a wealth of information on Spanish and international history, ideology, political science, church and state conflicts, nationalism, socialism, fascism, and communism.

    Military Leaders of World War I: Official and Private Papers of Generaloberst Hans von Seeckt - The materials reproduced in this collection consist of letters and other papers of Generaloberst Hans von Seeckt, prominent German military strategist of World War I. At various times he served on military missions to Turkey and China. After World War I, as military head of the Reichswehr, he was considered the organizer and "father" of the army of the German Republic.

    Nazi Bank and Financial Institutions: U.S. Military Government Investigation Reports and Interrogations of Nazi Financiers, 1945-1949 - This publication comprises two collections, Records Regarding Bank Investigations and Records Relating to Interrogations of Nazi Financiers, from the records of the Office of the Finance Division and Finance Advisor in the Office of Military Government, U.S. Zone(Germany) (OMGUS), during the period 1945–1949. Records Regarding Bank Investigations, 1945–1949, consists primarily of memorandums, letters, cables, reports, exhibits, newspaper clippings, and civil censorship intercepts on the financing of the German war effort and German financial institutions. The records include reports on Nazi gold, the use of Swiss banks, and links between German and Swiss banks, inclusive of Commerzbank, Deutsche Bank, Deutsche Golddiskontbank, Dresdner Bank, and Reichs-Kredit-Gesellschaft. The investigations contain information regarding Aryanization, bank operations outside of Germany, industrial ties, liquidation proposals, and the restitution of Hungarian property. Records Relating to Interrogations of Nazi Financiers, 1946–1947 consists of interrogation reports and transcripts, exhibits, and questionnaires. Names included are Bernhard Berghaus, Alois Alzheimer, August von Finck, Eduard Hilgard, Kurt Schmitt, and Franz Schwede-Coburg. Also among these records are files relating to Carlowitz & Company and Japanese firms operating in Germany.

    Nazism in Poland: The Diary of Governor-General Hans Frank - This collection reproduces the Tagebuch or journal of Dr. Hans Frank (1900-1946), the Governor-General of German-occupied Poland from October 1939 until early 1945. The journal is in typed format, in chronological order, covering all aspects of Generalgouvernment (GG) administration from its seat in the royal Wawel castle in Krakau (Kraków). The entries reflect administrative matters, rather than the spontaneous thoughts or feelings usually found in a diary.

    Patriotes aux Armes! (Patriots to Arms!): The Underground Resistance in France, Belgium, Holland, and Italy, 1939-1945 - This Collection consists of newspapers and periodicals, broadsides, leaflets, books and pamphlets, and other ephemera produced by or relating to the underground resistance in Belgium, France, Italy, and The Netherlands during the Second World War. Also included are related materials: ephemera from the pre-War and “Phony War” periods; Free French and other foreign publications; items related to the liberation of Paris and to the period immediately after the liberation; autograph letters and manuscripts; and books inscribed by their authors. Most of the documents are in French, while some are in German, Flemish, Dutch, Italian, and Yiddish.

    Post-War Europe: Refugees, Exile and Resettlement, 1945-1950 - This online archive delivers essential primary sources for the study and understanding of the challenges facing the European peoples in the aftermath of World War II. It covers the politics and administration of the post-war refugee crisis in Europe well as the day-to-day survival of the refugees themselves. Although the War in Europe ended officially in May 1945, the struggle continued for the millions of homeless people who had been displaced as a result of military action, deportation into labor or concentration camps, local racism and discrimination, or the relocation of national borders. The burden of the refugee problem taxed the Allied governments and Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) relief groups in their attempts to administer, feed and house moving people searching for their lost families and a permanent home. A rapid repatriation program was organized but many Displaced Persons (DPs) could not or would not return to their homelands. Emigration programs struggled against the reluctance of nations outside Europe to assist in the resolution of this humanitarian catastrophe.

    Psychological Warfare and Propaganda in World War II: Air Dropped and Shelled Leaflets and Periodicals - This publication collection consists of over 1,000 airdropped and shelled leaflets and periodicals created and disseminated during the Second World War. The majority of items in this collection were printed by the Allies then air or container dropped, or fired by artillery shell over German-occupied territory. Many leaflets and periodicals have original publication codes and were printed in over 10 languages. Only shelled leaflets, Germans to Allies (115 items), are in English.

    Records of the Deutsche Ausland-Institut, Stuttgart: Records on Resettlement - This collection includes Nazi records on resettlement kept or collected by the Deutsches Ausland-Institut (German Foreign Institute, DAI), Stuttgart, seized from the Axis Powers during and after WWII. These records are most valuable in documenting the implementation and modification of National Socialist race doctrine. Included are records of resettlement negotiations and agreements with the Russians, Rumanians, and Italians and records describing the treatment and attitudes of all kinds of resettlers. In addition, the collection throws light on the conflict between diverse SS agencies as well as between the SS and other agencies of Party and State. In fact, it documents nearly all aspects of resettlement, not least through the untranslatable language in which this project in demographic engineering was conducted.

    Records of the Office of the Reich Commissioner for the Strengthening of Germandom - The Reich Commissioner for the Strengthening of Germandom (Reichskommissar für die Festigung deutschen Volkstums, RKFDV) was an office in Nazi Germany responsible for repatriation, and settlement of both German citizens and ethnic Germans who lived abroad, into Nazi Germany and German-held territories. This collection of RKFDV records seized from the Axis Powers covers primarily the records of the Chief Staff Office (Stabshauptamt). Some records of other offices of the RKFDV are also included: Kattowitz office, Aussiedlungsstab Kauen (Kaunas/Kowno), Zentralbodenamt. A small amount of material of the Höhere SS- und Polizeiführer Süd (Wehrkreis VII) als Beauftragter des RKFDV, Sonderstab Henschel and Getto-Verwaltung Litzmannstadt (Lodz) are also included.

    SAFEHAVEN Reports on Nazi Looting of Occupied Countries and Assets in Neutral Countries - SAFEHAVEN was the code name of a project of the Foreign Economic Administration, in cooperation with the State Department and the military services, to block the flow of German capital across neutral boundaries and to identify and observe all German overseas investments. The records reproduced in the collection consist primarily of reports and letters, cables, and military attaché reports referring to specific SAFEHAVEN reports or SAFEHAVEN-related topics. Such topics include information on alleged art looting; business matters (including alleged patent transfers) pertaining to leading German industrial firms such as Bosch and I.G. Farben; and various Third Reich personalities.

    The Economy and War in the Third Reich, 1933-1944 - This official statistical source provides rare, detailed data on the German economic situation during the Third Reich up to and throughout World War II. Consisting of Monatliche Nachweise-ber den Auswartigen Handel Deutschlands (January 1933-June 1939); Der Aussenhandel Deutschlands Monatliche Nachweise (July 1939); and Sondernachweis der Aussenhandel Deutschlands (August 1939-1944).

  • France

    Actes royaux français, 1256-1794 (French Royal Acts, 1256-1794) - Approximately 16,000 pamphlets covering this important period in French history are available in this collection. One of the largest collections of its kind, it offers a wealth of information on the legislative history and governance of France, as well as other aspects of French life.

    Indochina, France, and the Viet Minh War, 1945-1954: Records of the U.S. State Department, Part 1: 1945-1949 - Comprising records of the State Department’s Central Classified Files, this collection contains records relating to the internal affairs of Indochina, during the period 1945-49. The records include instructions sent to and correspondence received by the State Department; the State Department's internal documentation, as well as correspondence between the Department and other federal departments and agencies, Congress, and private individuals and organizations; telegrams, airgrams, instructions, inquiries, studies, memoranda, situation reports, translations, special reports, plans, and official and unofficial correspondence. 

    Journaux de la Révolution de 1848 (Newspapers of the French Revolution 1848) - The revolution of 1848 caused the final collapse of the monarchy in France, and in the power vacuum that followed a range of competing voices sought to control the future direction of the country. The social and political upheavals of this period are richly detailed in this unique collection of newspapers and periodicals – an essential resource for understanding modern European history.

    L’Affaire Dreyfus: son influence dans la création de la France moderne (The Dreyfus Affair in the Making of Modern France) - 1894. Alfred Dreyfus, un officier français juif, est accusé de trahison et condamné à perpétuité. En dépit de preuves accablantes de la culpabilité d’un autre officier, l’Armée continuera à étouffer l’erreur judiciaire jusqu’à la libération de Dreyfus en 1906. L’"affaire Dreyfus", qui devint le scandale politique le plus marquant de son époque, divisa la France et révéla l’antisémitisme virulent sévissant en Europe.

    La France pendant la guerre 1939-1945: Résistance et journaux de Vichy (Voices from Wartime France 1939-1945: Clandestine Resistance and Vichy Newspapers) - Providing perspectives from both the Vichy government and the resistance movement, this unique collection constitutes the sum of the French press that reached Britain during the Occupation of 1940-44. It is the record of what was known by the British about the hearts and minds of the French people at the most dramatic period of their shared history.

    Mercure de France, 1672-1810 - Published from 1672, this influential periodical promised in its first issue to chronicle the activities of luminaries in metropolitan Paris, in the French provinces, and abroad, and to offer good literature to lovers of novels and stories. It was published first under the title Le Mercure Galant by Donneau de Vise. Upon his death it was taken over by Riviere Dufresny (1710), then Lefevre de Fontenay (1714), and Abbot Bucher. In 1724 the title was changed to Le Mercure de France, and the periodical was split into a literary and a political section.

  • Germany

    George H. W. Bush and Foreign Affairs: Fall of the Berlin Wall and the Reunification of Germany - When East Germany opened its borders and Germans tore down the Berlin Wall separating East and West Berlin in early November 1989, it marked a symbolic end to Communist rule in Eastern Europe. In the minds of many, the Cold War was over. This collection provides an in-depth analysis of the events leading up to the fall of the Berlin Wall and its implications for U.S.-German relations. Documents include 1999-0393-F: Records of Memcons and Telcons between President Bush and Helmut Kohl concerning the Fall of the Berlin Wall and the Reunification of Germany; and FOIA 2001-1166-F: Records on the Fall of the Berlin Wall and German Unification.

    German Folklore and Popular Culture: Das Kloster. Scheible. - Germany is a land of fascinating customs and traditions. Through the work of the many authors, its folk and fairy tales have become widely read around the world. German folklore has also inspired numerous literary, artistic, and musical works. This collection is an accessible introduction to German folklore. It provides numerous examples of German folkways and presents a wide-ranging selection of texts. This collection provides insight into the pervasive influence of German folklore on literature and popular culture. Das Kloster is a collection of magical and occult texts, chapbooks, folklore, popular superstition, and fairy tales of the German Renaissance compiled by Stuttgart antiquarian Johann Scheible, between 1845 and 1849. 

    German Foreign Relations and Military Activities in China, 1919-1935 - This collection provides documentation on Germany’s relations with China during the interwar period. Germany was instrumental in modernizing China’s industrial base and provided a military training mission and equipment for the armed forces of the Republic of China before the Second Sino-Japanese War.

  • Ireland

    The Dublin Castle Records 1798-1926 - The Dublin Castle administration in Ireland was the government of Ireland under English and later British rule, from the twelfth century until 1922, based at Dublin Castle. Dublin Castle Records, 1798-1926 contains records of the British administration in Ireland before 1922, a crucial period which saw the rise of Parnell and the Land War in 1880 through to the establishment of the Irish Free State in 1921. This collection comprises materials from Series CO 904, The National Archives, Kew, UK.

  • Northern Europe

    Finland: Records of the U.S. Department of State Relating to Internal Affairs, 1945-1949 - The documents in this collection are primarily instructions to and dispatches from U.S. diplomatic and consular staff regarding political, economic, military, social, and other internal correspondences and events in Finland. Documents also include reports and memoranda prepared by the U.S. State Department staff, communications between the State Department and foreign governments, and correspondence with other departments in the U.S. government, private firms, and individuals. 

    Finland: Records of the U.S. Department of State Relating to Internal Affairs, 1950-1954 - The documents in this collection are primarily instructions to and dispatches from U.S. diplomatic and consular staff regarding political, economic, military, social, and other internal correspondences and events in Finland. Documents also include reports and memoranda prepared by the U.S. State Department staff, communications between the State Department and foreign governments, and correspondence with other departments in the U.S. government, private firms, and individuals. 

    Finland: Records of the U.S. Department of State Relating to Internal Affairs, 1955-1959 - The documents in this collection are primarily instructions to and dispatches from U.S. diplomatic and consular staff regarding political, economic, military, social, and other internal correspondences and events in Finland. Documents also include reports and memoranda prepared by the U.S. State Department staff, communications between the State Department and foreign governments, and correspondence with other departments in the U.S. government, private firms, and individuals. 

    Finland: Records of the U.S. Department of State Relating to Internal Affairs, 1960-Jan. 1963 - The documents in this collection are primarily instructions to and dispatches from U.S. diplomatic and consular staff regarding political, economic, military, social, and other internal correspondences and events in Finland. Documents also include reports and memoranda prepared by the U.S. State Department staff, communications between the State Department and foreign governments, and correspondence with other departments in the U.S. government, private firms, and individuals. 

  • Russia/USSR

    Country Intelligence Reports/State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research Reports USSR (1941-1961) - This series consists of reports, studies, and surveys on various topics of interest to the Department of State. The reports vary from short memorandums to detailed, documented studies. The topics range from individual commodities or countries to the economic and political characteristics of whole regions. This collection consists of research and intelligence reports prepared during 1941-1947 on USSR.

    George H. W. Bush and Foreign Affairs: The Moscow Summit and the Dissolution of the USSR - When George H. W. Bush became president in 1989 the United States had already begun to see a thawing of relations with the Soviet Union. President Bush spoke of softening relations in his inaugural address, claiming that "a new breeze is blowing," and adding that "great nations of the world are moving toward democracy through the door to freedom." This collection provides an in-depth analysis of the events leading up to the dissolution of the U.S.S.R. and its implications for U.S.-Soviet relations. 

    The collection consists of three FOIA files from the Bush Library. The first file contains material related to the Moscow summit and the coup in August 1991 against Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev. This file contains cables sent to the White House situation room concerning day-by-day developments and conversations between President Bush and other foreign leaders. The second file, which concerns the dissolution of the Soviet Union, highlights the Bush administration’s response to the dissolution and the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Documents here concern economic and humanitarian support, diplomatic recognition of the republics, aiding the transition to democratic governments and market economies, and defense issues, particularly the fate and control over the former Soviet Union's nuclear arsenal. The last FOIA file contains materials on the meeting between President Bush and President Mikhail Gorbachev in Malta (December 2–3, 1989) and the subsequent meetings between President Bush and NATO leaders in Brussels (December 3– 4, 1989). 

    The Russian Civil War and American Expeditionary Forces in Siberia, 1918-20 - This collection reproduces important letters, reports, memorandums, cablegrams, maps, charts, and other kinds of records relating to the activities of the American Expeditionary Forces in Siberia (hereafter, AEF in Siberia), 1918-20.

    World War I and Revolution in Russia, 1914-1918 - This collection documents the Russian entrance into World War I and culminates in reporting on the Revolution in Russia in 1917 and 1918. The documents consist primarily of correspondence between the British Foreign Office, various British missions and consulates in the Russian Empire and the Tsarist government, and later the Provisional Government.

  • Southeastern Europe

    Albania: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1945-1963 - Albania established a Communist regime and a one-party system under Yugoslav and Soviet guidance. The People's Republic of Albania declared in January 1946, was led by Enver Hoxha (1908-1985), Stalin’s disciple, who served as party general secretary, prime minister, and commander in chief. The documents here are sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

    Bulgaria: Records of the U.S. Department of State Relating to Internal Affairs, 1945-1949 - The documents in this collection are primarily instructions to and dispatches from U.S. diplomatic and consular staff regarding political, economic, military, social, and other internal correspondences and events in Bulgaria. Documents also include reports and memoranda prepared by the U.S. State Department staff, communications between the State Department and foreign governments, and correspondence with other departments in the U.S. government, private firms, and individuals. 

    Bulgaria: Records of the U.S. Department of State Relating to Internal Affairs, 1950-1954 - The documents in this collection are primarily instructions to and dispatches from U.S. diplomatic and consular staff regarding political, economic, military, social, and other internal correspondences and events in Bulgaria. Documents also include reports and memoranda prepared by the U.S. State Department staff, communications between the State Department and foreign governments, and correspondence with other departments in the U.S. government, private firms, and individuals. 

    Democracy in Turkey, 1950-1959: Records of the U.S. State Department Classified Files - This collection of State Department documents provides access to unique primary source materials on the political, economic, and social development of Turkey during a period of democratization in the 1950s.

    Greece: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1950-1963 - This archive focuses on Greece in the Cold War era in the aftermath of the Greek Civil War, which took a heavy toll, in the late 1940s. The collection is sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

    Turkey, Greece, and the Balkan States: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1930-1944 - The documents in this collection on Turkey, Greece, and the Balkans are sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C. Contained here is the Greco-Turkish Convention signed at Ankara, 10 June 1930. Most of the archive is in French and Turkish.

    Turkey: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1802-1949 - Modern Turkey, from its late Ottoman roots in the early 19th-century to its emergence as a republic following the First World War, is traced here. Correspondences from U.S. Consults in Alexandretta, Erzurum, Harput, Siva, and Smyrna are included. This archive is sourced from the Central Files of the General Records of the Department of State. The records are under the jurisdiction of the Legislative and Diplomatic Branch of the Civil Archives, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

  • United Kingdom

    British Foreign Office: United States Correspondence, 1930-1934 - This collection in The National Archives at Kew covers British foreign affairs concerning the United States. The General Political Correspondence for the United States of America, in F.O. 371, consists primarily of communications between the Foreign Office and various British embassies and consulates in North America. Governmental, political, military, economic, and cultural topics concerning Anglo-American relations are chronicled.

    British Foreign Office: United States Correspondence, 1935-1937 - This collection in The National Archives at Kew covers British foreign affairs concerning the United States. The General Political Correspondence for the United States of America, in F.O. 371, consists primarily of communications between the Foreign Office and various British embassies and consulates in North America. Governmental, political, military, economic, and cultural topics concerning Anglo-American relations are chronicled.

    British Foreign Office: United States Correspondence, 1938-1940 - This collection in The National Archives at Kew covers British foreign affairs concerning the United States. The General Political Correspondence for the United States of America, in F.O. 371, consists primarily of communications between the Foreign Office and various British embassies and consulates in North America. Governmental, political, military, economic, and cultural topics concerning Anglo-American relations are chronicled.

    British Foreign Office: United States Correspondence, 1941-1943 - This collection in The National Archives at Kew covers British foreign affairs concerning the United States. The General Political Correspondence for the United States of America, in F.O. 371, consists primarily of communications between the Foreign Office and various British embassies and consulates in North America. Governmental, political, military, economic, and cultural topics concerning Anglo-American relations are chronicled.

    British Foreign Office: United States Correspondence, 1944-1945 - This collection in The National Archives at Kew covers British foreign affairs concerning the United States. The General Political Correspondence for the United States of America, in F.O. 371, consists primarily of communications between the Foreign Office and various British embassies and consulates in North America. Governmental, political, military, economic, and cultural topics concerning Anglo-American relations are chronicled.

    British Foreign Office: United States Correspondence, 1946-1948 - This collection in The National Archives at Kew covers British foreign affairs concerning the United States. The General Political Correspondence for the United States of America, in F.O. 371, consists primarily of communications between the Foreign Office and various British embassies and consulates in North America. Governmental, political, military, economic, and cultural topics concerning Anglo-American relations are chronicled.

    British Political Opinion Polls and Social Surveys, 1960-1988 - Although widely quoted, opinion polls are rarely published in full or held by libraries. This collection offers the complete text of the polls and surveys of every major organization, along with the statistical results. The Tom Harrisson Mass-Observation experiment and Britain's war-time Home Intelligence Reports were two comparatively short-lived attempts at feeling the pulse of public opinion and collating the expressed views of a wide cross-section of the British Public in order to formulate action and legislation. A far more extensive operation was undertaken in the 28 years since 1960 by the joint members of the Association of Political Opinion Pollsters (APOP). Namely, MORI (Market and Opinion Research International), NOP (National Opinion Polls Market Research); HARRIS (The Harris Research Centre), MARPLAN and GALLUP. For the first time ever, the complete political and social opinion polls of these five major social survey organizations have been brought together and indexed. In consequence, political scientists, sociologists, and economic and social historians now have ready access to a formidable body of material providing data on political opinion, public tastes, major concerns and many individual issues.

    Industrial Mobilization in Britain and the Ministry of Munitions, 1915-1918 - The standard reference source on the unprecedented industrial mobilization of an entire economy to fight the war of 1914-1918, this 12 volume set has previously only been available in a few select libraries with which the British government deposited copies. It is essential for anyone who wants to study the economics behind World War I, the career of David Lloyd George, and the process of state intervention in industry. The history of the Ministry of Munitions is one of the most extraordinary and instructive episodes in modern British history. Within less than three years, David Lloyd George and his successors transformed the face of British industry and created the largest government department the county had ever seen.

    Northern Ireland: A Divided Community, 1921-1972 Cabinet Papers of the Stormont Administration - Government documents of the British administration in Northern Ireland 1921-72 (CAB/4) offer what has been described as the best continuous record of government activity and decision-making in the world, and shows "how government actually worked". The papers contained in Northern Ireland: A Divided Community, 1921-1972 are a complete digital facsimile of the Cabinet Conclusion files of the Northern Ireland Government, filed as CAB/4 at the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland (PRONI). These CAB/4 files contain a full record of every debate and transaction for the entire duration of the Stormont administration, the devolved government of Northern Ireland. Separate files exist for each Cabinet Meeting and include minutes and memoranda. The discussions and decisions reflect the wide range of problems and activities involved in making the new administration work. Topics debated and reported in just one sample year of the Troubles (1970) include: policing, arms and explosives, social need, prevention of incitement to religious hatred, army occupation of factories, road spiking, routing of Orange Day parades, dock strikes, law and order, riots, and the roles of the Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) and the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC).

    The British Mandate in Palestine, Arab-Jewish Relations, and the U.S. Consulate at Jerusalem, 1920-1944 - This collection consists of correspondence and telegrams received and sent by the American consular post in Jerusalem. The topics covered by these records include the protection of interests of American citizens, foreign trade, shipping, and immigration. But there is more to these records than traditional consular activities – the Jerusalem post provides a unique look into the British Mandate in Palestine. Consular officials reported on the administration of the Mandate, Jewish immigration, terrorism, and Arab rebellion. There are unique materials on the relationship of Palestinians to other Arab countries, British policies, the Zionist movement in Palestine and abroad, Communist influence in Palestine, reports on Islamic conferences, racial and religious disturbances and riots, the “holy places question,” partition of Palestine and the Arab Entente, Jewish-Arab relations and impact on Palestine, and Jewish and Arab national aspirations.

    The Papers of Joseph Chamberlain - Winston Churchill once wrote that Joseph Chamberlain "made the weather" in British politics. Through his radical ideals, he split both the main British parties, the Liberals by opposing Home Rule for Ireland and the Conservatives over tariff reform. The Papers of Joseph Chamberlain highlight his political career as Mayor of Birmingham to Secretary of State for the Colonies and the fight over tariff reforms with which he ended his career. This collection demonstrates the rapid change in politics, particularly the constant change in allegiances between politicians and Chamberlain’s development as a politician. Newspaper clippings of his early speeches, the only record still existing of them, can also be found in this collection, recording his political career from start to finish.

    The Papers of Neville Chamberlain - Neville Chamberlain (1869-1940) remains the best-known of the Chamberlain family due to his controversial policy of "appeasement" towards Hitler. The Papers of Neville Chamberlain contain political papers documenting his policies as Chancellor of the Exchequer and Prime Minister, but also highlight his correspondence with his family. These provide insight into the intentions behind his policies, his concerns at the development of the Second World War, as well as letters covering his life together with his wife Annie and his sisters, particularly Hilda and Ida. The correspondence of his wife with his biographer and the handling of his estates following his death can be found in this collection as well.

    The Papers of Sir Austen Chamberlain - Sir Austen Chamberlain (1863-1937) was the ablest Foreign Secretary of the interwar period, earning the Nobel Peace Prize for the signing of the Locarno Treaties in 1925. As a career politician, he held a variety of government offices, and The Papers of Sir Austen Chamberlain contains political papers that variously document his policies as Chancellor of the Exchequer, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, and Leader of the House of Commons. These provide insight into the intentions behind his policies, the development of foreign affairs for both the First and Second World Wars and his role in the wartime coalition government. The papers also include personal correspondence with his family, including his sister and wife, and highlight his close friendship with his stepmother, Mary Endicott.

    War of 1812: Diplomacy on the High Seas - In the time of war the duties of the State Department have always been expanded. During the War of 1812, Congress authorized the Secretary of State to issue commissions of letters of marque and reprisal to private armed vessels permitting them to “cruise against the enemies of the United States.” Owners of merchant vessels filed applications for the commissions with the State Department or with collectors of customs. Many collectors were allowed to issue to privateers, commissions received in blank from the Department of State. The collectors often sent on to the Department the original applications and forwarded periodically abstracts of the commissions they had granted. During the war, the Department also issued permits for aliens to leave the U.S., and it received reports from U.S. marshals on aliens and prisoners of war in their districts, from collectors of customs and State Department agents on the impressment of seamen, and the Department's “Secret Agents” on the movements of the British in the Chesapeake Bay area. The Department also had responsibility for negotiating the treaty at the end of the war. 

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