This book provides a comprehensive review of income inequality issues in the OECD in a cross-country setting. It presents a wealth of data and analysis on the formation of inequality and identifies groups of countries that share similar inequality patterns. It also reviews developments at the extremes of the income distribution, namely poverty, top incomes as well as the distribution of wealth. An important contribution of the book is the careful examination of the determinants of the income distribution, such as globalisation and technical progress as well as the effect of a wide range of economic policies that shape the distribution of income. These include in particular labour market regulations, household taxes and transfers as well as in-kind public services.