The French Revolution invented modern revolution—the idea that humans can transform the world according to a plan—and so has a central place in the study of the social sciences. It ushered in modernity by destroying the foundations of the “Old Regime”—absolutist politics, legal inequality, a “feudal” economy (characterized by guilds, manorialism, and even serfdom), and an alliance of church and state.
The concept of an industrial revolution denotes an economic transition in which the means of production become increasingly specialized, mechanized, and organized. This process uses technology, in some association with science, to create large increases in the productive capacity of an economy, which in turn eventually transforms society as a whole.
Globalization refers to the economic, political, social, cultural, and technological exchanges among people, nations, and regions. The ever-increasing integration is extensive, covering trade and investments, values and ideas, inventions and lifestyles, and governance policies.