“Black Lives Matter." Gale Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection, Gale, 2020.
Black Lives Matter (BLM) is a civil rights movement and activist network that originated from a hashtag campaign on social media in 2013. The #BlackLivesMatter campaign gained momentum online in the wake of a Florida jury finding George Zimmerman not guilty of the second-degree murder of Trayvon Martin, an unarmed Black high school student whom Zimmerman shot and killed. Zimmerman claimed self-defense, but many people saw his acquittal by a jury as racially biased. As a social movement, BLM has focused largely on a lack of accountability for state violence committed against Black Americans, particularly police violence.
BLM has attracted the support of many celebrities and professional athletes. The movement has launched an activist network connected through social media that comprises individuals, local and regional groups, and international coalitions. While BLM has focused on police violence and disparities in the criminal justice system, many chapters champion specific issues that are local or personal to their members, including environmental justice and education. Within the movement's first few years, it spread to several countries, including Australia, Brazil, Canada, Ghana, South Africa, and the United Kingdom.
The phrase "Black Lives Matter" first appeared on Facebook when activist Alicia Garza posted her response to the Zimmerman verdict. Garza's friend and fellow activist Patrisse Cullors saw the post and repurposed the phrase as a hashtag, sharing it on Twitter and launching the campaign on social media. Garza, Cullors, and Opal Tometi, another activist friend, began promoting the hashtag to mobilize protests against the Zimmerman decision. However, the phrase resonated with Black Americans who felt that the criminal justice system valued the lives of Black people less than the lives of others.
In July 2014 mobile phone footage was released of white New York City police officer Daniel Pantaleo using excessive force on Eric Garner, an unarmed African American man. Garner died during the encounter. He could be heard repeatedly saying "I can't breathe" in the footage, and the phrase became a rallying cry for BLM supporters.
Less than one month after Garner's death, a white police officer in Ferguson, Missouri, shot Michael Brown, an unarmed Black eighteen-year-old. Marches, protests, and rallies in response to the incident were promoted through the BLM social media campaign. Protests took place around the country shortly after Brown's death and in November following a grand jury's refusal to indict the officer for Brown's murder. Protesters in Ferguson were met by a police force armed with military assault rifles, shotguns, pistols, body armor, armored fighting vehicles, and chemical agents banned in warfare, such as tear gas.
The demonstrations in Ferguson brought national attention to BLM, establishing the movement as something more substantial than a social media campaign. Amid national awareness of the protests, the US Department of Justice (DOJ) opened investigations into the Garner case and on racial bias and the use of force within the Ferguson Police Department. In 2015 the DOJ published its findings about policing in Ferguson, concluding that the city prioritized revenue over public safety needs, and the city's police force and courts held racial biases that adversely affect African Americans.
Despite the efforts of BLM, many police officers accused of using excessive force have avoided punishment, even those for whom damaging evidence has been captured on video. Officers have had charges against them dropped or reduced, while others were not charged at all. For example, the 2017 acquittal of Minnesota police officer Jeronimo Yanez for the 2016 shooting of Philando Castile received significant attention because Castile's girlfriend streamed the aftermath of the incident live on Facebook.
A few convictions of officers have occurred, including the 2019 sentencing of Chicago officer Jason Van Dyke for second-degree murder in the 2014 death of seventeen-year-old Laquan McDonald. The DOJ opened an investigation into the city's police department following McDonald's death. However, another three officers, including Van Dyke's partner, were charged with conspiracy and obstruction of justice and were ultimately acquitted. In July 2019 the Chicago Police Board ruled to dismiss four other officers from duty for their roles in misrepresenting Van Dyke's actions through false statements.
The unrest in Ferguson established BLM as a political movement with the potential to disrupt the status quo. Activists Johnetta Elzie, Brittany Packnett, and DeRay Mckesson, all prominent voices in the Ferguson protests, became more committed to the movement, launching several secondary projects including Mapping Police Violence, which catalogs police violence and provides analyses of that data; We The Protesters, which provides activists with resources for organizing demonstrations; StayWoke, a nonprofit organization that brings together activists to help with one another's projects; and Campaign Zero, a platform presenting data-driven solutions for policing reform.
By 2016 the movement had gained such prominence that both BLM activists and the police violence they condemn became talking points in the US presidential election. The Democratic, Green, and Libertarian candidates expressed support for the movement, while Republican nominee Donald Trump, who would go on to win the presidency, accused BLM of promoting racism, instigating violence, and disrespecting law enforcement. During the 2020 Democratic primary season, several of the party's candidates consulted with BLM activists. In the months leading to the 2020 presidential election, President Trump characterized BLM as a treasonous hate group. Some political commentators have inferred that Trump speaks out against BLM and protests for racial justice in general to galvanize his base supporters around a culture war issue. In contrast, the Democratic presidential candidate, Joe Biden, expressed support for BLM and incorporated into his campaign some of BLM's core principles related to criminal justice reform.
Some people have responded to the slogan "Black Lives Matter" with concern that the phrase neglects the value of non-Black lives, choosing instead to align themselves with the phrase "All Lives Matter." For BLM supporters, the phrase "All Lives Matter" is seen as a denial that racial disparities exist in the criminal justice system and a dismissal of legitimate grievances. In response, BLM activists have clarified that "Black Lives Matter" does not mean that other lives do not matter as well. They explain the phrase is intended to draw attention to the ways in which society does not ascribe the same value to Black lives as it does to the lives of others.
Reports of violence from the Ferguson protests led many Americans to adopt a view of BLM as a violent group hostile to law enforcement and white people. In 2020, during the first week of protests in Minneapolis following the police killing of George Floyd, mostly peaceful daytime protests were followed by nights sporadically dotted with arson, rioting, and looting. However, media critics note that many reports exaggerate the amount of violence and property damage caused by protesters.
As BLM has been forthright in its criticisms of law enforcement and the criminal justice system, many members of law enforcement have spoken out against the movement. In 2014 police officers in New York City established Blue Lives Matter, a movement to highlight violence committed against law enforcement, support police families, and build public awareness about the needs of police officers. Members of Blue Lives Matter have called for legislation that identifies violence against a police officer or firefighter as a hate crime, and such laws have been considered or passed in several states, including Georgia, Louisiana, and New York. Critics of these laws contend that membership in a professional community cannot be equated with membership in the social and racial groups traditionally protected by hate crime legislation.
By 2020 BLM had gained broader acceptance with the American public. In the spring of 2020, the police killings of George Floyd in Minneapolis and Breonna Taylor in Louisville, Kentucky, as well as the fatal shooting of Ahmaud Arbery while he jogged in his Brunswick, Georgia, neighborhood, sparked a new wave of BLM protests. The New York Times reported that fifteen million to twenty-six million Americans participated in demonstrations in support of racial justice in early summer 2020, leading some scholars to call BLM the largest movement in US history.
A new slogan from BLM activists emerged during this time: "Defund the police." Activists demanded a shift from funding police agencies to using those resources for public services and non-policing community programs. Calls to defund police agencies have brought up concerns that communities with defunded police departments would become lawless and lack adequate resources to help crime victims. BLM's "Defund the police" slogan has become part of the national political debate about police reform. While many Republicans and the Trump administration have dismissed the movement as dangerous and impractical, the Democratic and Republican parties have each proposed legislation to address police reform in 2020.
This study examines racism in the United States from a public health perspective. The authors seek to document the prevalence of racism across a number of institutions, including education, housing, health care, and the criminal justice system; to consider the difference between Black and white experiences in these settings; and to account for variance in reported instances of discrimination by Black people based on gender, level of education, and community of origin.
This article discusses the history of right-wing political efforts to curb voting rights and reinforce discriminatory racial hierarchies in the United States. The authors argue that expanded voting rights are the key to equivalent expansion of democracy and progress towards racial parity.
In this article, author Keisha N. Blain argues that Black Lives Matter protests in the United States should be considered within the context of a larger global movement against racism and police brutality in Black communities and other communities of color. While 2020 protests may have originated in the United States, Blain emphasizes that the problems they confront are occurring around the world, and must be addressed at a global level.