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    Apartheid existed in South Africa from 1948 until 1991, allowing institutionalized racism and segregation across many areas of daily life. During this time, many anti-apartheid groups such as the African National Congress (ANC) were banned, and notable anti-apartheid leaders – such as Nelson Mandela (1918-2013) – were imprisoned.

    Following president P.W. Botha’s (1916-2006) stroke and subsequent resignation in 1989, his successor F.W. de Clerk (1936-present) announced in his first address to parliament (February 1991) that the ban on anti-apartheid groups such as the ANC were to be lifted. Alongside this, figures such as Mandela would be released, press freedom was restored, and the death penalty was repealed, among other sweeping changes. 

    During the early 1990s, negotiations were held that gradually deconstructed the legal framework that allowed apartheid to be enforced, and in 1993 de Klerk and Mandela were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Despite violence during these years, in 1994 South Africa had its first election under universal suffrage. The ANC won the election on 27 April, with Nelson Mandela sworn in as South Africa’s first post-apartheid president – April 27 is still celebrated as Freedom Day in South Africa.

    "De Klerk goes well beyond the Rubicon." Daily Telegraph, 3 Feb. 1990

    Bridgland, Fred. "Nelson Mandela walks free today." Sunday Telegraph, 11 Feb. 1990


    David Livingstone (1813-1873) was the most renowned explorer of the nineteenth century. His journey into the Interior marked the beginning rather than the culmination of Livingstone’s career as an explorer. His first great expedition was to cross southern Africa, from the Zambezi River to the Congo River, and then on to Luanda, the capital of Angola on the Atlantic coast. This journey, which lasted from January 1853 to May 1854, was undertaken with the hope that it would open up new legitimate commercial routes, thereby undercutting the vestiges of the African slave trade. In September 1854 he left Luanda for his return across the continent, reaching the Indian Ocean in May 1856. En route he was the first European to lay eyes on the enormous, thundering waterfalls on the Zambezi that he named Victoria Falls after Queen Victoria of Great Britain.

    He returned to Africa as British Consul-at-Large, with the aim that he might discover the ultimate source of the Nile. Battling fatigue and illness, Livingstone pressed further west than any previous European, reaching Nyangwe, on the Lualaba River leading into the Congo River. Returning to Lake Tanganyika in October 1871, Livingstone encountered Henry Morton Stanley, a correspondent for the New York Herald, who replenished Livingstone’s rations and medical supplies before returning to Britain. After Stanley’s departure, Livingstone pushed south again, but his desperate search for the source of the Nile was halted by illness. In May 1873, at Chitambo in modern Zambia, he was found dead kneeling beside his bed as if in prayer.

    Livingstone, David, and W. Oswell Livingstone. "Dr. Livingstone's Second Letter." Daily Telegraph, 29 July 1872

    Prideaux, W. F. "The Fate of Dr. Livingstone." Daily Telegraph, 13 Feb. 1874

    "The Late Dr. Livingstone." Daily Telegraph, 16 Apr. 1874


    From 1952 to 1960, violent conflict took place between parts of the British Army and Mau Mau in British Kenya. “Mau Mau” was used as an overall name for various aligned factions of the Kikuyu, Kenya’s largest ethnic group.

    After some early acts of violence, a State of Emergency was declared, and military activity mobilised. Mau Mau leaders were arrested, including Jomo Kenyatta (c.1890-1978), with various operations launched to detain key figures and gain intelligence on the various Mau Mau groups operating throughout the country. In January 1955, Governor-General of Kenya Evelyn Baring (1903-1973) offered an amnesty to the Mau Mau, revoked in June after receiving no response. The end of the rebellion and British military activity came in 1956 with the capture of Dedan Kimathi (1920-1957), though the conflict is regarded as ending in 1960 when native Kenyan majority rule was established and Kenya began to move toward independence.

    After being released in 1959 and living in exile until 1961, Jomo Kenyatta became leader of the Kenya Africa National Union (KANU), and won the general election in 1963. He became the first Prime Minister of Kenya, overseeing the transition from a British Colony to an independent republic, of which he became President until his death.

    Huxley, Elspeth. "Unrest and Crime in Kenya." Daily Telegraph, 17 Sept. 1952

    Ziman, H. D. "Mau Mau: How Long Will It Last?" Daily Telegraph, 7 Jan. 1954

    Kampfner, John. "Deaths rise as disease adds to aid nightmare." Daily Telegraph, 21 July 1994


    From 1990, Rwanda had been in a state of civil war, fought between the Hutu-led government and the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), largely formed of Tutsi refugees. Violence between Hutu and Tutsi factions had been ongoing since Rwandan independence in 1963, until a ceasefire in 1993 after international pressure on Juvénal Habyarimana’s (1937-1944) government.

    The ceasefire ended when Habyarimana was assassinated in April 1994, starting with Tutsis and moderate Hutus being executed by police, soldiers and militia. The genocide occurred between April and July 1994, when nearly 70% of the Tutsi population were killed, with estimates of 500,000 to 1,000,000 people killed over a 100-day period, and another 2,000,000 Rwandans were displaced.

    The RPF gained control of the northern part of Rwanda and eventually the capital, Kigali, by the end of July 1994, beginning the end of the massacre. The depopulation had severe consequences on the economy, and many Hutu’s fled to neighbouring countries, prompting further cross-border military actions.

    The genocide has had many legacies in the international world, especially as a contributing factor to the establishment of the International Criminal Court to prosecute crimes against humanity and war crimes, and many countries (including the United Kingdom, France and Belgium) were heavily criticized for their inaction during the atrocities.

    Our Foreign Staff and Agencies. "Rwanda under curfew after day of bloodshed." Daily Telegraph, 8 Apr. 1994

    Daniels, Anthony. "The African nightmare." Daily Telegraph, 11 Apr. 1994

    Kampfner, John. "Deaths rise as disease adds to aid nightmare." Daily Telegraph, 21 July 1994


    In 2010, South Africa became the first African nation to hold the football (soccer) FIFA World Cup tournament. The bidding process to host the tournament had only been open to African nations, and in 2004 South Africa were chosen ahead of Morocco and Egypt. The growth in popularity of the sport in the continent, the increase in prominent African players in major international leagues, and the ever improving performances of African nations in tournaments meant that an African nation had become a viable host for the tournament.

    Like many large sporting tournaments, it brought problems. The expectations that construction and infrastructure costs would be offset by increased tourism failed to materialize, and the restrictions on local businesses led to reduced income during the tournament.  Many people were ‘evicted’ as a method to make the cities more aesthetically pleasing, including the controversial N2 Gateway housing project, and the Elimination and Prevention of Re-Emergence of Slums Act that would force many shack-dwellers into temporary transit camps. Despite these issues, FIFA awarded South Africa a nine out of ten rating for organization, meaning that they are considered a ‘plan B’ for future tournaments.

    Bose, Mihir. "South Africans likely to stay FIFA favourites." Daily Telegraph, 8 Mar. 2000

    Freeman, Simon. "S Africa hopes for a goal much bigger than soccer." Sunday Telegraph, 2 July 2000

    Simpson, John. "World Cup lottery leaves a bitter taste for South Africans." Sunday Telegraph, 9 July 2000

  • ASIA


    At roughly 8:15 in the morning of August 6th 1945, the Japanese city of Hiroshima was destroyed by the first atomic bomb, swiftly followed by Nagasaki, in an attack of such magnitude it is widely credited as the event that led to the end of World War II. At least 192,000 people are estimated to have died in the two bombings, with exposure-related medical conditions continuing for years afterwards.

    The aftereffects of the bomb lasted for decades, with hibakusha (roughly translated as ‘victims of the atomic bomb’) being offered free medical treatment into the twenty-first century, and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (previously the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission from 1947 to 1975) using Hiroshima as a base for research on the long-term effects of radiation exposure.

    The city has recovered in subsequent years: significant reconstruction began in 1950, and Hiroshima is now one of the largest industrial centres in the Chūgoku and Shikoku regions, with significant companies building headquarters in the city, notably the Mazda Motor Corporation. In 1996 the Genbaku dōmu (Atomic Bomb Dome) was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site, and a commemorative service is held on August 6 each year in the Peace Memorial Park.

    Reuter, et al. "Atom Bomb Blotted out Japanese City." Daily Telegraph, 8 Aug. 1945

    "The First Picture taken from the ground of the havoc …." i, 5 Sept. 1945

    Ridley, John, Daily Telegraph Special Correspondent, and Daily Telegraph Special Correspondent. "Research behind the Scars of Hiroshima." Daily Telegraph, 23 Nov. 1953


    After 156 years of British rule, midnight on the 30th June 1997 saw the transition to the Hong Kong special administrative region (HKSAR) of the People’s Republic of China, with Hong Kong officially transferring to Chinese sovereignty.

    The transition process had begun 13 years previously, with the Sino-British Joint Declaration on the Question of Hong Kong being signed by the two governments in December 1984. The relationship had run steadily until the appointment of Chris Patten (1944-present) as Governor of Hong Kong in 1992, who introduced many policies designed to introduce democratic elections to the Legislative Council, that would have given the population of Hong Kong a greater voice in the running of the country – China saw this a going back on earlier agreements, and voted to have the Legislative Council disbanded. There were many concerns in Hong Kong and abroad that China would not stick to the "one country, two systems" plan, fearing that China would reduce and limit the rights of Hong Kong’s residents, imposing a similar method of rule used in Singapore.

    After a lavish ceremony attended by important political figures, the handover went ahead as planned, and – despite the concerns - Hong Kong remained stable for several months after the handover was complete.

    Worsthorne, Peregrine. "The wronging of 5 million." Sunday Telegraph, 4 June 1989

    Sharma, Yojana. "Prisoners fear executions after takeover." Daily Telegraph, 15 Nov. 1996

    Stormont, Diane. "Hong Kong freedoms challenged by Beijing." Daily Telegraph, 10 Feb. 1999


    From 1986 to 1991, the Japanese asset price bubble (baburu keiki) saw highly inflated prices on the stock market, and especially in the property market. Rapid credit expansion and uncontrolled money supply, among other factors, began to take their toll, and the economy finally crashed in 1992.

    Signs of a possible collapse had been visible as early as 1988, and commercial land prices in the capital began to plateau, and residential land prices dropped by over 4%. In 1991, asset price began to fall, and by 1992 the economy entered a decline that lasted over a decade, often referred to as the 'Lost Decade'. Many financial institutions entered periods of great difficulty, and land prices in Tokyo fell sharply. By 1992, land prices in urban areas had dropped by nearly 2%, with the six major cities being worst hit, where residential land prices dropped by nearly 18%. 

    Consumption and investment dropped, and consumer confidence was severely shaken, and there was a drop in average household income. This led to long term deflation, and property prices did not begin to rise again until 2007.

    Segall, Anne, Economics Correspondent. "Japan on brink of downturn." Daily Telegraph, 4 Sept. 1993

    Gurdon, Hugo. "Japan battles for economy." Daily Telegraph, 4 Jan. 1994

    Adam, Georgina. "Great art falls victim to bad debts." Daily Telegraph, 12 Oct. 1998


    The Khmer Rouge were a radical movement that ruled Cambodia from 1975 to 1979, during which time an estimated 1.5 to 2 million Cambodians died. The atrocities prompted a joint operation between the United Nations and the government of Cambodia - the Khmer Rouge Tribunal – which began indicting former leaders and key figures in 2007.

    In 1951 the Khmer People’s Revolutionary Party was founded, eventually becoming the Communist Party of Kampuchea. After years of clandestine activity against Prince Norodom Sihanouk (1922-2012), the King of Cambodia, the Khmer Rouge entered into a coalition with Sihanouk, gaining more support from countryside followers due to Sihanouk’s popularity. A civil war ran from 1970 to 1975 while the support grew, culminating in the Khmer Rouge successfully taking Phnom Penh in 1975 and establishing a national government.

    The Khmer’s leader, Pol Pot (1925-1998) became Prime Minister, until invading Vietnamese troops deposed the Khmer Rouge in 1979, though the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea (incorporating the remains of the Khmer Rouge) were internationally recognized as the government of Cambodia until 1993. In 1997, after years of continued guerrilla fighting, Pol Pot was arrested, before he died in 1998.

    Warner, Denis. "Cambodia war that came back." Sunday Telegraph, 16 Mar. 1975

    Loudon, Bruce. "Khmer Rouge Guilty of Mass Murder, Say Refugees." Sunday Telegraph, 20 July 1975

    Anderson, Nancy. "Vietnamese Rout Khmer Guerrillas." Daily Telegraph, 16 Feb. 1985


    Although called an ‘eruption’, the 1883 was more accurately a series of increasingly escalating explosions over the course of several weeks between May and August 1883. In May 1883, an early eruption sent ash clouds 6 miles (10 km) into the air, with the explosion heard over 100 miles (160 km) away in Jakarta; activity began to resume in mid-June, and on the 26th August a series of rapid explosions began. The biggest explosion happened the next day: on the 27th August, an explosion was heard over 2,200 miles (3,500 km) away in Australia, with ash reaching as high as 50 miles (80km) into the air. The ash plunged the surrounding area into darkness for more than two days, and dust repeatedly drifted round the Earth causing red and orange sunsets for nearly a year afterwards.

    Although one wave that hit Java and Sumatra did claim around 36,000 lives, very few people died as a direct result of the eruptions, as Krakatoa was believed to be uninhabited; but it did cause residual events, including tsunamis, hundreds of miles away in South America and Hawaii. It also had other geological and environmental consequences: in the following year the average temperate in the northern hemisphere rose by 1.2 degrees Celsius (2.2 degrees Fahrenheit), and weather patterns were noticeably affected for the next five years.

    Reuter's Telegrams. "The Terrible Volcanic Eruption." Daily Telegraph, 30 Aug. 1883

    Reuter's Telegrams. "The Terrible Eruption." Daily Telegraph, 31 Aug. 1883

    "When it is remembered that about two earthquakes take …." Daily Telegraph, 24 Apr. 1884



    On April 25-29 1986, a series of experiments led to a catastrophic accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, with the lid being blown off reactor 4 followed by a partial meltdown of the reactor. In the immediate aftermath, the Soviet Union attempted to cover up the accident, but the eventual revelation of the incident led to international condemnation, and raised concerns about the safety and use of nuclear power.

    The radiation released into the atmosphere was greater than that caused by the atom bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and had economic and environmental consequences for several years afterwards, including births of deformed livestock and expectations of significant cancer-related deaths. Aftereffects in vegetation and plant life were forecast to last up to a century after the release of the radiation, and the movement of livestock as far away as the United Kingdom was in effect until 2012.

    Although only just over 30 deaths occurred initially, many more contracted radiation sickness which caused deaths later on. Thousands of people were evacuated from the area, and the remaining reactors were progressively closed over the next fourteen years, with the station fully decommissioned in 2000.

    Stone, Norman. "Russia's deadly combination of secrecy and incompetence." Daily Telegraph, 3 May 1986

    Cochrane, Alan. "Melt-Down at Chernobyl." Sunday Telegraph, 4 May 1986

    Grice, Elizabeth. "Children of Chernobyl." Daily Telegraph, 29 Apr. 1992


    The Berlin Wall divided East and West Berlin for twenty-nine years, acting as a physical and intellectual barrier between the two sides of the city, and of Europe. After the East German Volkskammer signed a decree on August 12th 1961, construction began over the following two days, and by the early 1980s the structure extended for 28 miles (45 km) through the city.

    The plan was triggered by socio-economic concerns: between 1949 and 1961, an increasing ‘brain drain’ in East Germany threatened its economic stability. Around 2.5 million East Germans left for the West, including trained professionals and intellectuals. As a result, the East decided to stem the flow by erecting a physical barrier, blocking East German’s access to the West.

    After a series of revolutions in Eastern European countries, in 1989 the leadership of East Germany was forced from power, and on 9th November the borders between East and West were opened. Parts of the Wall were opened, and people could travel freely between the two sides. The physical demolition of the Wall happened between 1990 and 1992.

    Johnson, Daniel, and Charles Laurence. "Berliners watch the Wall come crumbling down." Daily Telegraph, 13 Nov. 1989

    Kampfner, John. "Voters awaken to a brave new world of choice." Sunday Telegraph, 18 Mar. 1990

    Johnson, Sarah. "A bohemian rhapsody for Berlin's wild West." Sunday Telegraph, 23 Sept. 1990


    In January 1999, 11 of the 15 countries in the European Union merged their national currencies into a single European currency, the Euro. This decision was motivated partly by politics and partly by hoped-for economic benefits from the creation of a single, integrated European economy. These benefits included currency stability and low Inflation, underwritten by an independent European Central Bank (a particular boon for countries with poor inflation records, such as Italy and Spain, but less so for traditionally low-inflation Germany). Furthermore, European businesses and individuals stood to save from handling one currency rather than many. Comparing prices and wages across the Euro Zone became easier, increasing competition by making it easier for companies to sell throughout the euro zone and for consumers to shop around.

    In its first few years, the euro fell sharply against the dollar, though it recovered during late 2002. Sluggish growth in some European economies led to intense pressure for interest rate cuts, and to the stability and growth pact being breached, though not scrapped. Even so, by 2009 16 of the 27 member countries of the European Union had adopted the euro, and the currency was informally used by five other countries.

    Adapted from: Bishop, Matthew. "Economic and Monetary Union." The Economist Economics: An A-Z Guide, Profile Books, 2009

    Collins, Neil, City Editor. "How a Euro-currency could fit the bill." Daily Telegraph, 12 July 1988

    Johnson, Boris, EEC Correspondent, and Reuter. "Brussels calls for 1996 deadline on single currency." Daily Telegraph, 21 Mar. 1990

    Helm, Toby, EU Correspondent. "The European single currency." Daily Telegraph, 3 Dec. 1998


    During the early twentieth century, social divisions began to intensify in Spain: they roughly divided into the Nationalists (predominantly Roman Catholics, and largely affluent), and the Republicans (largely the labourers and urban workers).

    The increasing division led to a military revolt against the Republican government, with a failed military coup resulting in a civil war that lasted from 1936 to 1939. In October 1936, General Francisco Franco (1892-1975) was named head of state, after becoming a prominent figure among many of the Nationalist forces. Both sides sought help from abroad: the Nationalists received aid from Italy and Germany, and the Republicans from the Soviet Union and volunteer forces from Europe and the United States.

    After gradually taking Madrid and most of northern Spain by early 1939, the Nationalist forces had caused large numbers of Republicans fighters (as well as civilians) to flee over the border to France, followed by the Republican government in March. By the end of March, the Republican armies had begun to disband and surrender.

    Our Diplomatic Correspondent, et al. "Foreign Help Sought in Spanish Civil War." Daily Telegraph, 25 July 1936

    "Spanish Civil War—First Pictures from Madrid." Daily Telegraph, 24 July 1936

    Our Own Correspondent. "Revolution Issue in Spain." Daily Telegraph, 7 Feb. 1936


    The Srebrenica massacre occurred in July 1995, with over 20,000 civilians displaced, and estimates of between 7,000-8,000 Bosnian Muslim men killed by Bosnian Serb forces. In 1992, Bosnian Serbs aimed to take control of Srebrenica, culminating in a cordon being established in 1995 under the orders of the president of the Bosnian Serb Republic, Radovan Karadžić (1945-present). The cordon limited important supplies, forcing Bosnian Muslims to leave the area. Later in 1995, operation Krivaja was started, and the offensive began in July with Serb forces marching on Srebrenica.

    Despite a group of Dutch peacekeeprs being present in the nearby town of Potočari (where many from Srebrenica fled), little resistance was made. On July 11, Bosnian Serb forces promised security if the opposition surrendered: when they did surrender, many were executed. Over the next few days, a wave of executions continued in more towns along the Bosnian-Serbian border. In following years, the UN accepted partial blame for failing to protect the Bosnian Muslims, after they had designated it a “safe area” in 1993. The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia ruled that the events combined to genocide, the first in Europe since World War II.

    Montgomery, Michael, and Francis Harris. "Final hours of Srebrenica as defences are breached." Daily Telegraph, 17 Apr. 1993

    Bishop, Patrick. "Silence in the city ‘cleansed’ of all its men." Daily Telegraph, 15 July 1995

    Strauss, Julius. "The killing field of Srebrenica gives up its dead." Daily Telegraph, 25 Apr. 1996



    In August 1947, India was granted independence within the British Commonwealth and was divided into the dominions of India and Pakistan. Pakistan was itself divided with West Pakistan comprising the area now known as Pakistan, and East Pakistan, occupying what had been Eastern Bengal. West Pakistan was politically and economically dominant over East Pakistan, giving rise to a secessionist movement in the eastern province. Despite attempts to ease the tensions, these factions gradually grew into open hostility and in 1971 a brief but bloody civil war flared up that lasted for 2 weeks and ended with the intervention of Indian troops. On 17 December 1971 a new government in Dhaka declared the independence of the new state, Bangladesh.

    Bangladesh experienced a number of military coups after achieving independence in 1971, and several military governments tried to restrict activities of political parties. However, after the return to civil rule in 1990, all political parties may openly function in the country. In 1991, the first free and fair election was held in Bangladesh. Begum Khaleda Zia (1945-present) won the election. The new government brought radical changes to the economic policy, promoting private entrepreneurship, especially among representatives of poor communities, and supporting small- and medium-size businesses and privatization. This program was successful, and Bangladesh experienced economic growth throughout the 1990s.

    Adapted from: Abazov, Rafis. "Bangladesh." Worldmark Encyclopedia of National Economies, edited by Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast, vol. 3: Asia & the Pacific, Gale, 2002, pp. 41-55

    Loshak, David. "The end of the old Pakistan." Daily Telegraph, 10 Mar. 1971

    Hollingworth, Clare, and Our Diplomatic Staff. "Mujib Sworn in as Prime Minister of Bangladesh." Daily Telegraph, 13 Jan. 1972

    Gill, Peter. "Bangladesh confounds the pessimists." Daily Telegraph, 28 June 1972


    On November 12 19670, the deadliest tropical cyclone on record hit the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in East Pakistan. Estimates of the death toll vary from 300,000 to 500,000, with the Tazumuddin Upazila (the worst affected area) seeing 45% of its population killed. The remnants of Tropical Storm Nora had moved from the South China Sea over the Malay Peninsula on November 5th, and contributed to the formation of a new depression in the Bay of Bengal on November 8th. The storm made landfall on the east coast of Pakistan at high tide on November 12th, causing an accompanying storm surge that flooded large areas. Of the casualties, most died from drowning in the floods. The immediate aftermath had a significant effect on the history of the country: the heavily criticized response to the disaster contributed to a change in government a few weeks after the cyclone, and the deteriorating political condition culminated in a war that saw East Pakistan become independent in 1971 under the name it is now known: Bangladesh. It was also a decisive factor in improved natural disaster responses: the League of Red Cross Societies drafted a new plan for disaster response in similar areas, and later the UN General Assembly adopted proposals for improved aid provision to avoid similar fallout in the future.

    Our Correspondent in Dacca. "Huge toll feared in cyclone." Sunday Telegraph, 15 Nov. 1970

    Loshak, David. "20,000 perish as tidal waves engulf islands." Daily Telegraph, 16 Nov. 1970

    Loshak, David. "Pakistan Cholera Threat as Cyclone Toll Rises." Daily Telegraph, 17 Nov. 1970


    On December 3 1984, thousands of people were killed in Bhopal, India, after 45 tonnes of methyl isocyanate escaped from an insecticide plant. The final death toll is estimated to be between 15,000 and 20,000 people, with several hundred thousand survivors suffering a range of medical complications from blindness to respiratory problems. 

    Tens of thousands attempted to flee Bhopal as the gas drifted through densely populated neighbourhoods around the plant: investigators later concluded that substandard operating and safety procedures, coupled with understaffing, caused the leak. In 2010, several former Union Carbide executives (the American owners of the plant at the time of the disaster) were convicted of negligence.

    As late as the early twenty-first century, over 400 tonnes of industrial waste were still present at the Bhopal site, with reports of ongoing health issues and high rates of birth defects attributed to elevated levels of soil and water contamination.

    Tandon, Balram. "Death Toll in Poison City Reaches 2,000." Daily Telegraph, 6 Dec. 1984

    Tandon, Balram. "Gas Leak Firm Faces Claim of Negligence." Daily Telegraph, 7 Dec. 1984

    Graves, David. "Refugees return as deadly gas stocks are made safe." Daily Telegraph, 21 Dec. 1984


    Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948) played a pivotal role in India’s move for independence, leading the Indian independence movement. His advocacy and example of nonviolent civil disobedience became inspirational to many subsequent movements worldwide, and has had a lasting cultural impact. He was assassinated on January 30 1948 by Nathuram Godse (1910-1949), a Hindu nationalist.

    Indira Gandhi (1917-1984) – no relation to Mohandas – served as prime minister from 1966 until 1977, and again from 1980 until her assassination in 1984. She was the first female prime minister of India, and was noted for her strong leadership and centralising policies. She was assassinated in October 1984 by Sikh nationalists working as her bodyguards.

    Rajiv Gandhi (1944-1991) – son of Indira – served as Prime Minister from 1984 until 1991. He was sworn in to office following the assassination of his mother, becoming the youngest prime minister of India. His tenure was marked by many incidents, including the Bhopal gas disaster and the Bofors scandal. He was assassinated by a suicide bomber in May 1991, in an explosion that also killed over twenty other people during election campaigning.

    Watson, Alfred. "Mystic and Shrewd Tactician." Daily Telegraph, 31 Jan. 1948

    Tilley, Augustus. "Survival of Democracy the Legacy of Mrs Gandhi." Daily Telegraph, 1 Nov. 1984

    Philps, Alan, Diplomatic Staff, et al. "Rajiv Gandhi is assassinated." Daily Telegraph, 22 May 1991


    On April 13, 1919, British troops fired on a peaceful protest in the city of Amritsar in northern India. An estimated one thousand people were killed and another fifteen hundred injured. In the wake of the massacre, many of those who had previously been content to live under British rule began to rally on the side of those supporting independence.  The INC (Indian National Congress party) leader, Mohandas Gandhi (1869–1948), launched a campaign of nonviolent protest and non-cooperation with British rule. In 1929 the INC created a resolution asking Britain to give India full independence and promised a new campaign of civil disobedience if the petition was not granted.

    On August 16, 1946, the Direct Action Day ended in a week-long violent clash between Muslims and Hindus in Calcutta that left four thousand people dead. The violence spread throughout the country, and was enough to convince the British government that it could no longer maintain order in India. In 1947 the British viceroy, Lord Mountbatten (1900–1979), announced that India would be given independence. On August 14, 1947, independent Pakistan came into being, led by Mohammad Ali Jinnah (1876–1948) as governor-general. Just after midnight on August 15, INC leader Jawaharlal Nehru (1889–1964) proclaimed India's independence.

    Adapted from: "India Gains Independence from Great Britain." Global Events: Milestone Events Throughout History, edited by Jennifer Stock, vol. 2: Asia and Oceania, Gale, 2014, pp. 362-365

    Our Own Representative. "Quick Passage of India Independence Bill." Daily Telegraph, 16 July 1947

    "Independent India." Daily Telegraph, 17 July 1947

    Watson, Alfred. "India is to Discard English." Daily Telegraph, 18 Aug. 1949



    Ernesto Guevara de la Serna (1928-1967), better known as “Che” Geuvara, was a prominent figure in the Cuban Revolution, and guerrilla leader in South America. During his medical studies, he travelled extensively throughout South America, and his experiences were pivotal in forming his philosophy that revolution was the solution to the various social problems. His experience of a CIA-supported overthrow of Jacobo Arbenz (1913-1971) in Guatemala in 1954 prompted Guevara to bring about socialism by revolution.

    He left for Mexico and met brothers Fidel (1926-2016) and Raúl Castro (1931-present), and after the successful campaign to overthrow Fulgencio Batista (1901-1973) in Cuba, Guevara served in various notable positions in the new government. After becoming disillusioned, he left Cuba: after supporting various efforts in Africa, he travelled to Bolivia, where he was detained and killed by the Bolivian army in 1967. Guevara has served as a strong symbol in both revolutionary politics and popular culture since his death, and debates about his life and legacy continue to this day.

    Field, Michael. "Chasing Che Guevara in Bolivia." Daily Telegraph, 8 Aug. 1967

    Reuter. "Guevara Killed in Bolivia." Daily Telegraph, 10 Oct. 1967

    Field, Michael. "Where Che Guevara Failed." Daily Telegraph, 28 Nov. 1967


    François Duvalier (1907-1971), better known as “Papa Doc”, was elected president of Haiti in 1957. During his despotic rule, electoral manipulation in 1961 led to the United States withdrawing aid to Haiti, and he declared himself president for life in 1964. Along with his aide Clèment Barbot (1914-1963), they formed the Tontons Macoutes as a private militia to enforce their rule. Duvalier had Barbot imprisoned in 1959, and then assassinated after his release in 1963 after he had plotted to overthrow Duvalier by kidnapping his children. 

    His son Jean-Claude Duvalier (1951-2014), better known as “Baby Doc”, took over the role of president aged 19 after his father’s death. Despite instigating reforms under the guise of democratization, very little about the regime changed. Baby Doc fled Haiti in 1986 due to increasing social unrest, and a military council led the country in his absence. The council urged Baby Doc to be extradited to face charges of human rights violations, and he was arrested on his return to Haiti in 2011 (though later released). He died in 2013, after attending a pre-trial hearing, avoiding possible conviction.

    Jean-Bertrand Aristide (1953-present) became president in 1990, winning the country’s first democratic election, and was inaugurated in 1991. Making sweeping reforms, positive progress was halted as he was ousted in a coup later that year. Living in exile until 1994, he returned to lead the country again, but rules against consecutive terms meant he had to stand down in 1996. After forming a new party in 1997, he was elected president for a third time in 2000.

    Ball, Ian. "Exquisite Cruelty of Papa Doc's Dictatorship." Daily Telegraph, 23 Apr. 1971

    Downer, Stephen. "Haitians still terrorised by Tontons Macoutes." Daily Telegraph, 20 July 1987

    Tarr, Michael. "After Papa and Baby Doc Haiti finds a new father." Sunday Telegraph, 23 Dec. 1990


    In 1973, General Augusto Pinochet Ugarte (1915-2006) led the military junta that deposed Salvador Allende (1908-1973) as the president of Chile, and led the military government from 1974 until 1990. During his tenure (and beyond), Pinochet’s regime was accused of torturing opposition and condemned for its suppression tactics, but inversely during the late 1970s Chile saw an economic boom due to the policies put in place by the government. Despite a recession in the early 1980s, Chile’s economy stayed largely stable during Pinochet’s rule. Despite losing a referendum in 1988, Pinochet stayed in power until the free elections in 1990, and was succeeded by Patricio Alwyn (1918-2016).

    During a visit to London in 1998, Pinochet was arrested after Spain requested his extradition, on the grounds of accusations of torture of Spanish citizens in Chile during his presidency. The international interest sparked several major investigations, and in 2000 he was stripped of his diplomatic immunity, but charges were dropped in 2002 after he was deemed mentally incapable of defending himself in court. He was ruled capable of standing trial for illegal financial dealing among other charges in 2005, but died in 2006.

    Taylor, Frank. "Allende Dies in Revolt." Daily Telegraph, 12 Sept. 1973

    Taylor, Frank. "How much of a change in Chile?" Daily Telegraph, 22 Sept. 1973

    Mark, Imogen. "Chile's wealth gap widens as Pinochet dictatorship ends." Sunday Telegraph, 11 Mar. 1990


    Maurice Bishop (1944-1983) was a leader of the New Jewel Movement which proclaimed the independence of Grenada in 1974. After a 1979 coup he served as prime minister of Grenada until his death in a subsequent coup in 1983.

    On November 18 1973, Bishop and five members of the New Jewel Movement were attacked and brutally beaten by Eric Mathew Gairy's Mongoose Gang (1922-1997). "Bloody Sunday," as the event came to be called, coalesced the opposition to Gairy. On March 13 1979, Bishop and his followers seized control of the government of Grenada and suspended the constitution. Bishop's government, despite its achievements, failed to hold elections and stifled a free press and the opposition.

    On October 13 1983, Bishop was placed under house arrest. On October 19, a crowd of supporters released him and marched to the military compound at Fort Rupert. There troops captured and executed Bishop, three cabinet members, two labour leaders, and nearly a hundred civilians. Within six days the United States invaded Grenada, arrested the leaders of the coup, established an interim government, and terminated the Grenadian experiment.

    Adapted from: "Maurice Bishop." Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2nd ed., vol. 2, Gale, 2004, pp. 292-293

    Grigsby, John. "Grenadians shrug off island alert for U.S. invasion." Daily Telegraph, 17 Mar. 1983

    O'Sullivan, John. "Why the Marines went in." Daily Telegraph, 27 Oct. 1983

    Miller, Henry. "Life in Grenada Returning to Normal as Troops Mop up." Daily Telegraph, 1 Nov. 1983


    The Latin American Literary Boom happened during the 1960s and 1970s, when major shifts in the work produced in the region gained international attention, and gave Latin America a unique and original voice in world literature.

    The political turmoil across Latin America in these years changed the way literature and history were approached and interpreted, with many novelists, poets and playwrights using their work to explore the turbulent conditions, often moving toward modernist literary styles. The resulting interest led many works to be translated into numerous languages, allowing them to gain critical acclaim and distribution outside of Latin America.

    As a result, many of the notable authors of the boom have won prestigious international prizes, including several authors to win the Nobel Prize in Literature: Colombian author Gabriel García Márquez (1927-2014) won the prize in 1982, Mexican poet Octavio Paz (1914-1998) won the prize in 1990, and Peruvian author Mario Vargas Llosa (1936-present) won the prize in 2010.

    F, M. "Tapping the genius." Daily Telegraph, 23 Aug. 1997

    Shakespeare, Nicholas, Literary Editor. "Mexican poet and critic wins Nobel Literature Prize." Daily Telegraph, 12 Oct. 1990

    de Bertodano, Helena. "The sorcerer in exile." Sunday Telegraph, 30 June 1996



    During the early 1970s, Lebanon saw the rise of many social and political movements, sectarian militias and a growing presence of guerrilla groups. Escalating violence in the country proved too much for the state to control, especially between the Christian Phalangists and their leader Pierre Gemayel (1905-1984), and the LMN (Lebanese National Movement), a predominantly Muslim group led by Kamal Jumblatt (1917-1977). 

    Violence between Phalangists and the LNM escaletd after a Phalangist attack on a Palestinian refugee bus in 1975, starting a conflict that saw Beirut split between a Muslim west and Christian East. Stable negotiations were persistently undermined by in-fighting within communities and outside intervention, notably from Syria. In 1982, Bachir Gemayel (1947-1982) became president, having unified various militias into the Lebanese Forces. Three weeks later, he was assassinated, sparking retaliation from Christian militiamen that led to hundreds of deaths. Bashir’s brother Amine Gemayel (1942-present) was elected in 1982, but the violence did not recede. After many more years of violence and Gemayal stepping down in 1988, his successor General Michel Aoun (1933-present) accepted a ceasefire, and remained president until 1989, succeeded by René Moawad (1925-1989) who was assassinated later that year, in turn succeeded by Elias Hrawi (1926-2006). Conflict between Aoun and the LF led to more violence, though the civil war was generally regarded as finishing in 1990 when Syrian forces forced Aoun into exile.

    Gill, Peter. "Lebanon War Spreads to Villages." Daily Telegraph, 14 Jan. 1976

    O'Brien, R. Barry. "Beirut ceasefire paves way for presidential poll." Daily Telegraph, 7 May 1976

    O'Brien, R. Barry. "Civil War Ends 50 Years of Christian Rule in Lebanon." Daily Telegraph, 21 May 1976


    Early on the morning of September 5, 1972, eight members of the Black September Organization (BSO) associated with Yasser Arafat’s (1929-2004) al-Fatah faction of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), dressed as athletes, gained entrance to the Olympic Village. Carrying their weapons in gym bags, they sought out the apartment building housing the Israeli athletes.

    The terrorists then took nine Israelis hostage. At about 9:30 A.M. the terrorists opened negotiations with German authorities: the hostage takers demanded that Israel free 234 Arab prisoners and that West Germany release two German terrorist leaders imprisoned in Frankfurt. That evening the two sides reached a deal providing for a plane that would take both the terrorists and their hostages to Cairo.

    Certain that the incident would end in the deaths of the hostages, German officials were determined to prevent the departure. At 3:00 A.M. on September 6, German sharpshooters opened fire on two terrorists who had just inspected the plane. After a bloody shoot-out, the incident had claimed the lives of 11 Israelis, 5 terrorists, and 1 German policeman.

    Adapted from: Tucker, Spencer C. "Munich Olympic Games Massacre." Encyclopedia of Terrorism, edited by Peter Chalk, vol. 2, ABC-CLIO, 2013, pp. 515-517

    Coote, James, et al. "Hostages Killed in Gun Battle." Daily Telegraph, 6 Sept. 1972

    "Fury at Games Massacre." Daily Telegraph, 7 Sept. 1972

    Birkett, Peter, and David Miller. "Munich Clamp-Down after Arab Threat." Sunday Telegraph, 10 Sept. 1972


    In January 1968, the United Kingdom announced its intention to withdraw its forces from the Persian Gulf states by the end of 1971. Discussions took place among the Trucial States, Bahrain, and Qatar, with a view to forming a federation. The Trucial States formed the United Arab Emirates, but Qatar could not agree to the terms of the union. On 3 September 1971, the independent State of Qatar was declared. A new treaty of friendship and cooperation was signed with the United Kingdom, and Qatar was soon admitted to membership in the Arab League and the United Nations (UN).

    On 22 February 1972, Sheikh Khalifa bin Hamad al-Thani, the deputy emir and prime minister, seized power in a peaceful coup, deposing his cousin, Sheikh Ahmad. Following his accession, Sheikh Khalifa pursued a vigorous program of economic and social reforms, including the transfer of royal income to the state. On 31 May 1977, Sheikh Khalifa appointed Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani, his son, as heir apparent and minister of defense. In 1981, Qatar, along with the other Persian Gulf states of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates, established the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).

    Adapted from: "Qatar." Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations, edited by Timothy L. Gall and Jeneen M. Hobby, 12th ed., vol. 4: Asia and Oceania, Gale, 2007

    Bulloch, John. "British Tie Cut by Qatar." Daily Telegraph, 2 Sept. 1971

    Bulloch, John. "Shifting sands in the Persian Gulf." Daily Telegraph, 2 Dec. 1971


    Owing to the initiatives of Ferdinand de Lesseps (1805-1894), the Compagnie Internationale du canal maritime de Suez (Suez Maritime Canal International Company) was founded in 1857.He succeeded in convincing the Egyptian authorities to concede the location of a future waterway to a company with roots in both France and Egypt. Lesseps persuaded investors of the canal's feasibility and collected the funding to complete the lock-free waterway. 

    The canal was opened in November 1869, The gain in time was substantial: In 1900, the journey from London to Calcutta required 32 to 69 days, covering some 7,260 miles via the Cape, compared to only 22 to 47 days (5,038 miles) passing through the Suez. Similarly, going from Marseille to Saigon via the Cape required 33 to 71 days (7,450 miles), while it took only 20 to 42 days (4,454 miles) through the Suez.

    Great doubts about the canal's success marked the first years of operation. The expected increase in traffic never materialized because the Great Depression of 1880–1890 brought all investment in steamships and sailboats (mainly clippers) to a virtual halt. Moreover, technical glitches surfaced and cast a shadow on the safety of the transit through the canal. 

    Adapted from: Bonin, Hubert. "Suez Canal." Seas and Waterways of the World: An Encyclopedia of History, Uses, and Issues, edited by John Zumerchik and Steven L. Danver, vol. 1, ABC-CLIO, 2010, pp. 257-270

    "Another step has been taken towards the completion …." Daily Telegraph, 2 Sept. 1869

    Lange, Daniel A. "The Opening of the Suez Canal and the Alabama Claims." Daily Telegraph, 29 Sept. 1869

    "'The opening of the Suez Canal is a genuine success' …." Daily Telegraph, 19 Nov. 1869


    The tomb of Tutankhamen was found by British archaeologist Howard Carter (1874-1939) in 1922, as part of larger project that systematically explored the Valley of the Kings in Egypt. Alongside the discovery of the gold portrait mask that has become one of the most recognisable artefacts in the world, the mummy was also adorned with various pieces of jewelry. The coffin itself had three nests, consisting of two outer layers of gold-covered wood, and an innermost coffin made of solid gold. 

    The discovery was made by Carter, who had already made some significant discoveries in Egyptology, having discovered the tombs of Hatshepsut and Thutmose IV in 1902. In 1907 he began to work with fellow Egyptologist George Edward Stanhope Molyneux Herbert, 5th earl of Carnarvon (1866-1923), who chose Carter to supervise an excavation project in the Valley of the Kings. 

    Tutankhamen’s tomb was opened on 26 November, after initial signs were found on November 4. For ten years afterwards, Carter supervised the removal of the contents of the burial chambers, which are now stored and displayed in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

    "Valley of the Kings." Daily Telegraph, 4 Dec. 1922

    Elliot-Smith, G. "The Tomb of Tutankhamen." Daily Telegraph, 19 Jan. 1923

    Reuter's Special Service. "Lord Carnarvon at the Tomb of Tutankhamen." Daily Telegraph, 30 Jan. 1923



    In 1961, president John F. Kennedy (1917-1963) called for more funding to support the United States’ space programme, after the launch and successful introduction into orbit of Sputnik 1 by Russia in 1957 initiated the ‘space race’. Kennedy set the target of landing a man on the moon by the end of the 1960s. After managing to successfully capture public opinion to help overcome the political barriers, president Lyndon B. Johnson (1908-1973) managed to continue the space programme after Kennedy’s assassination in 1963.

    After several successful missions to launch men into space and orbit the moon during the decade, Apollo 11 became the first manned mission to land on the surface of the moon on July 20 1969. Astronauts Neil Armstrong (1930-2010) and Edwin Eugene “Buzz” Aldrin (1930-present) were the first humans to set foot on the lunar surface, the first of twenty-four to have travelled to the moon. Since the first manned moon landing, five more successful landings were made between 1969 and 1972.

    our Own Correspondent. "Kennedy Call for Man on Moon by 1970." Daily Telegraph, 26 May 1961

    Michaelis, Anthony. "Apollo 11 is in moon orbit." Sunday Telegraph, 20 July 1969

    Michaelis, Anthony, and Adrian Berry, Science Staff. "Americans Walk on the Moon." Daily Telegraph, 21 July 1969


    Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-1968) was the most prominent and visible civil rights campaigner of the 1950s and 1960s. A Baptist minister, he encouraged the Civil Rights Movement to progress through methods of nonviolence and civil disobedience. He led many of the most notable activist activities of the time, including nonviolent protest in Alabama (1963), the March on Washington (1963), and the Selma marches (1965). He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 for his work promoting racial equality, and posthumously awarded both the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal.

    Whilst in Memphis, Tennessee, planning the Poor People’s Campaign, he was assassinated by James Earl Ray (1928-1988). After the news broke, riots followed across the United States, and Ray fled the country – he was arrested in London two months later and sentenced to 99 years in prison. Shortly after the assassination, the Civil Rights Act of 1968 was passed, removing many discriminatory limitations placed on minorities relating to housing. Internationally, his work was influential, cited by central figures in progressive movements in many countries where various forms of discrimination existed, including countries as distant as South Africa and Northern Ireland.

    Ball, Ian. "Martin Luther King Shot Dead." Daily Telegraph, 5 Apr. 1968

    Howard, Elizabeth Jane. "Real Tragedy of the South." Sunday Telegraph, 7 Apr. 1968

    Harrod, Dominick. "‘Man on Run’ Suspect in Luther King Hunt." Daily Telegraph, 8 Apr. 1968


    Separatism in the mostly French-speaking province of Quebec has for almost half a century constituted the single biggest threat to the unity of Canada. The high watermark of the secessionist movement came in 1995 when the francophone Quebeckers, or Quebecois, came within a hair’s breadth of splitting away from Canada in a referendum. 

    The Quebec independence movement gathered steam in the 1970s. A watershed moment for French Canadians came in 1976 when the separatist Parti Quebecois (PQ) won the provincial elections for the first time and entered government. It called a referendum on independence in 1980, but 60 percent of the voters rejected secession. In 1987, to try to persuade Quebec to ratify the constitution, the Canadian government signed the Meech Lake Accord in which Quebec was recognized as a “distinct society,” but the accord was never ratified as some English-speaking provinces opposed it. While many Quebecois are ardent secessionists, others passionately support a continued union with Canada. For example, two of Canada’s longest-serving prime ministers in recent years have been French-speaking Quebeckers who were among the fiercest campaigners against Quebec separatism. These were Pierre Trudeau (1919-2000) and Jean Chrétien (1934-present).

    Adapted from: Beary, Brian. "Quebecois (Canada)." Separatist Movements: A Global Reference, CQ Press, 2011, pp. 129-134

    Our Parliamentary Staff. "Canada Act Becomes Law." Daily Telegraph, 30 Mar. 1982

    Ball, Ian. "Trudeau to Step down." Daily Telegraph, 1 Mar. 1984

    Robinson, Stephen. "Mulroney wins hard victory on accord." Daily Telegraph, 11 June 1990


    On April 18 1906, a 7.9 magnitude earthquake hit the west coast of the United States. The most severe damage occurred in San Francisco, even though motion was felt as far south as Los Angeles and as far north as Oregon. San Francisco had been hit by several earthquakes in the previous five decades, but 1906 was more destructive than the earthquakes in 1864, 1898 and 1900. Whilst the tremors from the earthquake caused significant destruction, they were followed by a fire that lasted for four days and flattened over 4 square miles (10 square km) in the centre of the city. Over 28,000 buildings were destroyed, and current estimates suggest over 3,000 people died, with over 250,000 left homeless. Large areas of the city were rebuilt over the following years, most importantly with increased emphasis on fire resistance. The culmination of the rebuilding work came in 1915, when San Francisco hosted the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, showcasing to the world the recovery that the city had made.

    "Earthquake at San Francisco." Daily Telegraph, 19 Apr. 1906

    "Scene of the Disaster." Daily Telegraph, 19 Apr. 1906

    "San Francisco: A Stricken City." Daily Telegraph, 20 Apr. 1906


    In June 1972, reports began to emerge of an attempted break-in at the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters in the Watergate complex, Washington D.C, in the run up to president Richard Nixon’s (1913-1994) re-election campaign. Initially the White House denied any connection to the burglary attempt, but it was later uncovered through the ‘Nixon tapes’ that the president had asked the FBI to pull away from the investigation.

    The White House managed to suppress press revelations about the administration’s involvement by suggesting the press had a vendetta against the government, and in pre-election polls, public trust levels in Nixon were above those for his opponent. Following the trial of the burglars, the Senate voted to start a committee investigating abuses in the 1972 election campaign, while the judge presiding over the burglary trial passed long sentences on the burglars, offering to reduce their sentences if they spoke freely to the Watergate grand jury.

    As a result, revelations and information began to emerge, and despite repeated protests of his own innocence, the recorded conversations from the president’s office—finally released after public protest—revealed the depth of the president’s role in the scandal. To avoid being impeached, Nixon resigned in August 1974, becoming the first president to resign from office.

    Adamson, David. "Nixon braced for major scandal." Sunday Telegraph, 25 Mar. 1973

    Barber, Stephen, and Richard Beeston. "Senate Rebuff for Nixon." Daily Telegraph, 2 May 1973

    Barber, Stephen. "Nixon Tells America ‘I Resign’." Daily Telegraph, 9 Aug. 1974



    In 1985 Fiji's national politics changed forever with the formation of the Fiji Labor Party (FLP). Its inaugural president was a Fijian from the west, Dr. Timoci Bavadra (1934-1989), a retired community health specialist. As the 1987 general election approached, the FLP decided to form a coalition with the National Federation Party (NFP). After a successful election, Bavadra was sworn in as Fiji's second prime minister on April 13, 1987.

    Parliament was in its third day of sitting when the drama that is now called "the first coup" unfolded, but Fijian anti-coalition sentiment arose as soon as the election results were announced. Though the Fijian community was divided along regional, social class, and other lines, it has never been difficult to gather large groups against a perceived threat of Indo-Fijian control. The Taukei (roughly, "ethnic Fijian") Movement articulated and organized this sentiment. Despite the actual and threatened unrest that followed the election, the coalition did not crumble until Sitiveni Rabuka (1948-present) made his move and initiated a coup on May 14, 1987. Rabuka led a second and more tightly controlled coup on September 25, 1987. A curfew was imposed, communications with the outside world were restricted, and some 200 individuals who were perceived as unfriendly to the Taukei Movement were detained. Rabuka declared Fiji a republic, with himself as head of an interim government.

    Adapted from: Ogan, Eugen. "Overthrowing Democracy: Fiji's Coup." History Behind the Headlines: The Origins of Conflicts Worldwide, edited by Sonia G. Benson, et al., vol. 3, Gale, 2002, pp. 124-134

    Reid, Robert Keith. "Power struggle in Fiji after army coup." Daily Telegraph, 15 May 1987

    Reid, Robert Keith, and Our Diplomatic Correspondent. "Colonel puts an island under the gun." Sunday Telegraph, 17 May 1987

    Taylor, Frank. "Fiji leader is freed in deal to hold poll." Daily Telegraph, 20 May 1987


    The Great Barrier Reef lies off the northeastern coast of Australia and is both a scientific wonder and an increasingly popular tourist attraction. It has been described as "the most complex and perhaps the most productive biological system in the world.” Over 1.5 million visitors per year visit the tropical paradise, and development along the Australian coast to accommodate the tourists was largely uncontrolled until 1990. The Government of Australia has declared the Great Barrier Reef a national park, and activities like explorations for gold and oil and spearfishing were permanently banned with the Reef's new status. The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has named it a world heritage site in attempts to encourage awareness and protect the area. Despite many threats, the marine park is one of the best protected in the world, thanks to citizens who recognize the worth of this treasure and visitors who are willing to practice ecotourism, and thanks to an extensive body of protective laws.

    Adapted from: Holmes, Gillian S. "Great Barrier Reef." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science, edited by K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, 3rd ed., vol. 3, Gale, 2004

    Pockley, Peter. "Barrier Reef's thorny plague." Daily Telegraph, 26 June 1996

    Rennie, David. "Barrier Reef ‘damaged by global warming’." Daily Telegraph, 22 Apr. 1998

    Dutter, Barbie. "Barrier Reef at risk from pollution." Daily Telegraph, 29 Jan. 1999


    Also known as the New Zealand Wars or the Land Wars, the Maori Wars were a series of conflicts between the British settlers of New Zealand and various Maori opponents. The wars were concentrated on New Zealand's northern island and fell into three phases: the Northern War of 1845–1846, the 1860s wars against the Maori King movement and its allies, and those against Maori prophetic leaders from 1864 until 1872. The first of these phases took place near the island's northern tip, in the Bay of Islands; the second along the western coast in Waikato and to its south in Taranaki; and the third throughout the island.

    The root of these conflicts was the Treaty of Waitangi, which the British signed with more than five hundred Maori chiefs in 1840. The British claimed the treaty granted them sovereignty over New Zealand in exchange for confirming the chiefs' ownership of their land. However, the complexities of translation and the differences in legal systems led many Maori to believe that they gave up only the newly invented concept of kawanatanga (“governorship”) but not practical sovereignty, or rangatiratanga (the rights of a chief). British eagerness to purchase land made them willing to accept claims of ownership from any Maori willing to sell, even when other chiefs contested the claim. Disagreements over Maori sovereignty and questionable land purchases caused most Anglo-Maori conflict for the next thirty years.

    Adapted from: Shapiro, Stephen. "Maori Wars (1845–1872)." The Encyclopedia of War, edited by George Martel, vol. 3, Wiley-Blackwell, 2012

    Our Own Correspondent. "The War in New Zealand." Daily Telegraph, 14 May 1861

    Our Own Correspondent. "Termination of the War in New Zealand." Daily Telegraph, 14 June 1861

    "The second Maori war has broken out, to the deep sorrow …." Daily Telegraph, 17 Aug. 1863


    Bougainville is one of the 600 islands that, along with the eastern half of the island of New Guinea, make up the independent nation of Papua New Guinea. Unrest stirred in April 1988 when landowners on Bougainville demanded compensation for environmental damages from the Australian-owned Bougainville Copper Limited. The company refused to pay, and in late 1988, a Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA) led by Francis Ona, a landowner and former mine worker, appeared and began to carry out acts of sabotage against the mine. The owners then closed down the mine and refused the government's request to resume operations, citing fear of further attack. Because the mine was extremely important to the national economy, Prime Minister Rabbie Namaliu sent Papua New Guinea troops to the island in December, and production began again. After further BRA violence, a curfew was imposed. 

    After years of conflict, negotiations to end the conflict began in July 1997, with a truce signed in October between the government and the rebels. By year's end, the New Zealand-led Truce Monitoring Group had begun to deploy on the island. In April 1998, a permanent cease-fire was signed, and the Australian-led Peace Monitoring Group replaced the New Zealand team. A final agreement was not reached, however, until 2001.

    Adapted from: MacMichael, David. "Papua New Guinea: Bougainville Independence Struggle, 1988–1998." Encyclopedia of Conflicts Since World War II, edited by James Ciment, Sharpe Reference, 2013

    Our Staff Correspondent in Singapore. "Papua Isle Goes It Alone." Daily Telegraph, 2 Sept. 1975

    Reuter. "Papua New Guinea is born under a cloud." Daily Telegraph, 16 Sept. 1975

    Martin, Geoffrey Lee. "Bougainville mine attacked as rebels set up ‘republic’." Daily Telegraph, 17 Apr. 1989


    The Sydney Opera House is located on Port Jackson in Sydney Harbour, situated on Bennelong Point, a promontory on the south side of the harbour just east of the Sydney Harbour Bridge. The building began with an international competition run by the New South Wales government in 1956, to design a new venue that included a main hall for large productions and a second for smaller, more intimate productions. 233 entries were submitted from over 30 countries, with Danish architect Jørn Utzon (1918-2008) providing the winning entry.

    The building did not go smoothly: construction began in 1959, but the innovative design led to overspending and engineering difficulties, causing many delays that turned public opinion against the project. Disagreements with government authorities saw Utzon resign from the project in 1966, with the remainder of the construction overseen by a structural engineering firm. Utzon did return in 1999 to oversee an improvement project, his last engagement with the building before his death in 2008.

    The building was officially opened in October 1973, and the main hall now holds over 2,500 people for performances across the arts. One of Sydney's—and Australia's—most recognised and iconic buildings, it was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2007.

    Our Architectural Reporter. "Novel Roof for Sydney Opera House." Daily Telegraph, 24 June 1960

    Bate, Henry, Daily Telegraph Architectural Reporter. "The £15 million Sydney Opera House takes final shape." Daily Telegraph, 14 June 1965

    "Architect's poetic idea becomes a reality." Daily Telegraph, 2 Sept. 1965



    The draw for the group stage of the tournament was seen as kind to England, one of the two seeded teams (as hosts) along with Brazil (as current holders). England were drawn in group one against France, Mexico and Uruguay: three teams that England had beaten in their last matches against them, including an 8-0 victory over Mexico in 1961. England’s group had some significant matches: they would play Uruguay (the first winners of the cup in 1930), and Mexico (who would host the next World Cup in 1970). After a 0-0 draw with Uruguay, they beat Mexico 2-0 in front of 85,000 fans, before beating France 2-0.

    The press were reserved about England’s chances heading into the quarter-final match against Argentina. England would make history, beating Argentina 1-0 to reach their first semi-final. England finally conceded their first goal of the tournament in a 2-1 victory over Portugal in the semi-final, with two goals from Bobby Charlton enough to win the match: Portugal’s goal came from Eusebio, arguably the star of the tournament. There was still little real confidence that England would win from the English press. Despite reminding the public that England had won eight and drawn one of the ten games against West Germany (and yet to be defeated by them), the final became one of the most iconic of all time, England eventually winning 4-2.

    Saunders, Donald. "Draw Lifts England World Cup Hopes." Daily Telegraph, 7 Jan. 1966

    Butler, Bryon. "England's Strong Defence is Key to Victory." Daily Telegraph, 26 July 1966

    Daily Telegraph TV and Radio Staff. "10m homes saw World Cup final." Daily Telegraph, 6 Aug. 1966


    The 1997 election was one of the greatest examples of the British press misjudging the course of an election and its result. The Conservative Party, under the leadership of John Major (1943-present), faced a strong challenge from the Labour Party, led by Tony Blair (1953-present). Labour had moved to a more centrist position, moving away from the more traditionally left-wing position, in what came to be known as “New Labour”. 

    In the run up to the election, many of the newspapers were pessimistic about Labour’s chances of a victory, with many actively dismissing the chance of a dominant win: they were proved wrong when the results came in, with Labour gaining a decisive landslide victory. It ended 18 years of Conservative government, in the last British election—as of 2017—to achieve a voter turnout above 70%. Labour remained in power for three consecutive terms: Blair resigned in 2007 and was succeeded by Gordon Brown (1951-present) as leader until the Conservatives won the 2010 General Election under the leadership of David Cameron (1966-present).

    Copley, Joy, Political Staff. "Blair unveils battle plan and opens fire on Major." Daily Telegraph, 9 Jan. 1997

    Baldwin, Tom, and David Wastell. "Just don't mention a landslide." Sunday Telegraph, 9 Mar. 1997

    Jones, George, Political Editor. "Blair wins by a landslide." Daily Telegraph, 2 May 1997


    Margaret Thatcher (1925-2013) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 until 1990, an election that marked her as Europe’s first female Prime Minister. At the point of her resignation she had been the longest serving Prime Minister for over 150 years. Championing greater individual freedom form the state and greater privatization, she gained a Conservative victory in the 1979 election having changed the image of the party to reflect the more modern, right-leaning stance it was beginning to take. Often divisive, she became known as much for her philosophies as her policies, the combination coming to be labelled ‘Thatcherism’.

    Finishing her tenure as one of the most divisive politicians in British history, she resigned as Prime Minister, though continued as an influential political figure, dedicating more time to public speaking and lecturing around the world. She established the Thatcher Foundation, before retiring fully from public speaking in 2002 after a series of minor strokes. She died in 2013, with her daughter revealing she had been showing signs of progressive dementia since 2000.

    Bagnall, Nicholas. "The making of Mrs. Thatcher." Sunday Telegraph, 9 Apr. 1972

    "Mrs. Thatcher defends her briefs." Sunday Telegraph, 9 Sept. 1973

    Johnson, Boris. "Was this the moment when Thatcherism died?" Daily Telegraph, 21 Apr. 1999


    The National Health Act was passed in the United Kingdom in 1946, leading to the formation of the National Health Service (NHS) as part of wider social reforms in the formation of the welfare state. Cross-party agreement was reached on the formation of a national service after the 1942 Beveridge Report, and the appointment of Aneurin Bevan (1897-1960) as Health Minister in 1945 began the process that ended with the creation of the NHS. The process did not run smoothly, with opposition from doctors and dentists: while agreement was finally reached with the British Medical Council and doctors began working for the service when it launched, dentistry took longer to resolve.

    The National Health Service was launched on 5 July 1948, but three years later Bevan resigned after charges were introduced for dentures and glasses: later additions, such as prescription charges, were the first of many controversies which many argued contradicted the three core principles of the service: it meets the needs of all, is free at the point of delivery, and treatment is based on clinical need.

    a Medical Correspondent. "B.M.A. Denounces Health Act." Daily Telegraph, 9 Jan. 1948

    Daily Telegraph Reporter. "Doctors Likely to Serve under Act." Daily Telegraph, 6 May 1948

    Daily Telegraph Reporter. "First Day of Cradle to Grave Service." Daily Telegraph, 6 July 1948


    During its maiden voyage, the Royal Mail Ship (RMS) Titanic sank on April 14-15 1912 after colliding with an iceberg in the Atlantic. The Titanic was one of three ships to be built by Belfast firm Harland and Wolff, commissioned by White Star, one of the two main transatlantic passenger ship lines. The Titanic, Olympic and Britannic were the vessels that would be built to rival the two ships planned by White Star’s man Rival Cunard: the Lusitania and the Mauretania. The Titanic and Olympic were built simultaneously, and the Titanic focused on luxury, with the second-class offering a rival to first-class accommodation on many other liners. The Titanic also focused heavily on safety, with confidence so high in the engineering that it was claimed to be unsinkable.

    The Titanic embarked from Southampton on April 10 1912, sailing for New York, with many prominent figures on board. After stops to pick up more passengers in Cherbourg (France) and Queenstown (Ireland), it set off for New York with roughly 2,200 people on board. After entering an iceberg zone, the warning message of an upcoming ice field was not relayed to the bridge, and the ship scraped an iceberg that ruptured the hull. More than 1,500 died, despite rescue efforts from nearby ships.

    Our Special Correspondent. "Launch of the Titanic." Daily Telegraph, 1 June 1911

    Reuter. "Appalling Disaster to the Titanic." Daily Telegraph, 16 Apr. 1912

    "The Titanic Inquiry." Daily Telegraph, 5 June 1912


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