Argentina: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1960-1963 - This archive focuses on Argentina after the era of Juan Perón. In this period civilian administrations traded power, trying, with limited success, to deal with diminished economic growth and continued social and labor demands. The documents offer insight into various aspects of the Argentine economy. Examples include the minister of public works discussing a program in “highways, railroads, and water transport” (June 1960); a report on the newly appointed undersecretary of mines requesting that the embassy’s economic counselor has the U.S. government “examine the possibilities of procurement of tungsten” (June 1961); and a resolution by the National Cinematographic Institute requiring that all films exhibited in motion picture theaters feature Spanish subtitles “accompanied by written proof that the dialogue has been translated and subtitled in Argentina” (April 1962).
Bolivia: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1960-1963 - The backstory to this archive revolves around the rise of the Nationalist Revolutionary Movement (MNR), which emerged as a broadly based party. Under President Victor Paz Estenssoro (1907-2001), the MNR “introduced universal adult suffrage, carried out a sweeping land reform, promoted rural education, and nationalized the country's largest tin mines. Twelve years of tumultuous rule left the MNR divided.” In 1964, a military junta overthrew President Paz Estenssoro at the outset of his third term. Documents in this collection offer insight into the U.S. state department during the Cold War. Examples include analysis of labor union leadership and its relationship to Communists “united in opposition” and attempting to impose a “Fascist regime in Bolivia.” Periodicals such as Prescenia and El Diario are characterized as “organs at service of Communists” (December 1960). The embassy notes how El Pueblo, the Communist newspaper in La Paz, reports a Pravda correspondent expressing “great interest in ‘promoting’ relations with USSR” (March 1962).
Brazil: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1960-1963 - This archive focuses on Brazil in the early 1960s. Sample documents include a report from Recife on the cultivation and export of pineapples, “especially in the states of Pernambuco and Paraíba,” as “an increasing source of foreign exchange for the Northeast.” A November 1962 memorandum details the issuance of 40 billion cruzeiros in new currency “to meet runs on commercial banks during the political crisis, gradually flowing back to the Bank of Brazil following the return of normal conditions.” The collection covers the period following the resignation from the presidency of Janio Quadros in 1961 and the succession of Vice President Joao Goulart, whose years in office were marked by high inflation, economic stagnation, and the increasing influence of radical political elements. The armed forces, alarmed by these developments, staged a coup on March 31, 1964, during the administration of U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson.
Chile: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1930-1963 - The records in this massive archive range from the era of the Great Depression to the height of the Cold War. The period of Radical Party dominance (1932-1952) saw the emergence of a strong middle-class party and its role as the key force in coalition governments. In this era, the state steadily increased its participation in the Chilean economy. Documents include negotiations with British nitrate interests (March 1934); U.S. state department concern of a possible “crisis in Chilean copper production” (October 1940); troops on alert following the refusal of telephone and electric company employees to obey orders to end a strike (January 1950); a student strike at the University of Concepción demanding adequate financing for the university (April 1950); and a U.S. embassy report noting “Chilean Roman Catholic Church Initiates Own Agrarian Reform Program” and “Moscow Conference Attracts Chileans” (July 1962).
Colombia: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1960-1963 - The documents in this collection offer a snapshot of Colombia at the height of the Cold War. Numerous records track the impact of the Castro revolution in Cuba, for example: “Colombia Tourist Agent Visits Embassy Regarding Prospective Travel of Colombians on Planned USSR Flights Between Havana and Moscow”; and naval equipment on loan: “Colombian Navy would like to lease … from the United States Navy, under similar terms as those contained in the lease for the Floating Dry Dock.” On the economy: National Coffee Federation tabulations (September 1960); and “it was a sellers’ market during December for anyone holding dollars for sale as the Colombian peso continued to fall in relation to the dollar. The free market has advanced nervousness since October” (15 January 1963).
Ecuador: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1960-1963 - The documents in this archive trace developments primarily during the administration of John F. Kennedy. Included here are plans by the U.S. Air Force, under an existing understanding between Quito and Washington, to commence photograph mapping operations in Central and Western Ecuador. Documents on commercial affairs include a report on the robust market of U.S. ophthalmic goods in Ecuador with continuing competition expected “from French, German, Swiss, and Japanese products”; and a proposed visit by U.S. fisheries consultants (June 1962).
Peru: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1960-1963 - Documents in this collection describe U.S.-Peruvian relations during the Cold War. Examples include: “Both Prensa Latina and Agence France Presse in Lima are staffed by Communists and Pro-Communists”; “Yugoslav ship calls in Peru”; memoranda on U.S. military interest in obtaining permission for essential air transportation traffic transit in Peru; and a letter from Texas Petroleum Company to the Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs regarding litigation between the Peruvian Government and the Company. Other records include: “Change in Method of Tax Payment for Foreign Mining Companies in Peru” (January 1960); and “Peruvian ‘Rights’ in Antarctica” (May 1962).
SUR, 1931-1992 - SUR, one of the most important and influential literary magazines published in Latin America in the twentieth century, is now available in an easy-to-use electronic format. This collection includes images of the complete magazine, including covers, photographs, and advertisements, more than 50,000 pages; a comprehensive electronic index of 6,300 entries, correcting mistakes and inconsistencies found in the index published in the magazine; and a set of images of manuscripts from the first issue as well as an unpublished set of letters by Victoria Ocampo. The collection allows users to search by author, title, genre, keyword, and full-text, with a user-friendly interface in Spanish or English.
Venezuela: Records of the U.S. Department of State, 1960-1963 - Documents in this collection illustrate Cold War contexts, the role of the United States in Venezuela’s foreign affairs, and the centrality of oil in the Venezuelan economy. Examples include a U.S. Department of State telegram titled “Communist Subversion in Venezuela,” which details “three foreign Communists” being held on “charges of conspiring to overthrow the government, illegally purchasing arms and disseminating Red propaganda...” Illustrations of the Castro-Communist insurgency in Venezuela include a letter from Ambassador Stewart C. Allen to the Secretary of State that details a detachment of Marines being sent “[to] guard Maracaibo Lake installations and security installations elsewhere being strengthened. “Meanwhile arrest extremist labor leaders continuing in oil fields on direct instructions [to] State Governors from President” (October 1962). Other documents detail a range of issues, such as clarification of Venezuelan boundaries; multiple balance sheets for the Central Bank of Venezuela; and police corruption in Zulia, one of Venezuela’s twenty-three states.