• Archives of Sexuality and Gender: International Perspectives on LGBTQ Activism and Culture

    International Perspectives on LGBTQ Activism and Culture, the fourth module in the Archives of Sexuality and Gender programme, examines populations and areas of the world previously underrepresented in prevailing scholarship on sexuality and gender, with a particular focus on southern Africa and Australia. The module also provides significant coverage of lesbian and feminist organisations, and lesbian culture internationally.

    Alongside LGBTQ history, the module explores other individual and collective struggles for rights and freedoms. Contextualising sexuality within wider narratives of cultural and social history helps counter the erasure of LGBTQ stories and experiences from official histories.

    Including manuscripts, periodicals and other ephemera, International Perspectives on LGBTQ Activism and Culture totals around 450,000 pages of content dating from the 1820s, with the bulk of the material between 1970–2016.


    The content is drawn from three archives:

    Gay and Lesbian Memory in Action (GALA)

    GALA is a centre for LGBTQ culture and education in South Africa, founded to address the erasure of LGBTQ experiences from official archives, histories and other spaces in South Africa. Set up in 1997 as the Gay and Lesbian Archives, the name changed in 2007 to Gay and Lesbian Memory in Action to encompass their expanding range of activities. International Perspectives on LGBTQ Activism and Culture includes 25 GALA collections (over 99,000 pages) covering numerous aspects of LGBTQ life in southern Africa. Highlights include:

    • The papers of Simon Tseko Nkoli – Nkoli was a prominent South African anti-apartheid, gay and lesbian rights and HIV/AIDS activist. His high profile helped change the attitude of the ANC towards gay rights.
    • The papers of Sexual Minorities Uganda (SMUG) – SMUG is non-profit umbrella organisation for LGBTQ advocacy groups in Uganda. Founded in 2004, SMUG offers counselling and health services to the LGBTQ community, as well as highlighting and fighting persecution in Uganda.
    • Exit newspaper – South Africa’s longest running monthly LGBT publication.
    • The papers of LEGATRA – LEGATRA, the Lesbians, Gays and Transgender Persons Association, was established in 1997 as an alliance for the defence of lesbians, gays and transgender persons' basic human rights in Zambia. Due to institutional harassment, LEGATRA was short lived, with most members fleeing Zambia’s borders.
    • The Papers of Joy Wellbeloved - Joy (James) Wellbeloved started the Phoenix Society in 1985 which provided a way for (white) men who dressed in women’s clothing to connect.


    Lesbian Herstory Archives – Organization and Geographic Files

    Established in the 1970s, the Lesbian Herstory Archives states that the organisation preserves records of lesbian lives and activities so that future generations will have ready access to materials, and researchers and scholars will be able to uncover the herstory previously ignored. This module includes around 130,000 pages of manuscripts and ephemera from two collections.

    • Organization Files – These files include materials from or related to 1,640 voluntary and not-for-profit groups in the LGBT community that focus on lesbian issues or have lesbian participation. They range from small groups like the Black Lesbian Study Group (NY), to community centres such as the Lesbian Resource Center (Seattle, WA). There are also files for the LGBT task forces of many national organisations. Some of the oldest files, for the Daughters of Bilitis, date from the 1950s.
    • Geographic Files – These files include material donated by the world-wide lesbian community who sent in items for archiving from their home state or that they picked up while traveling. The files include LGBTQ maps, city guides, event flyers, listings of bars, newspaper clippings and local newsletters.


    Australian Lesbian and Gay Archives – periodical collection

    Australian Lesbian and Gay Archives (ALGA) is a community group that collects and preserves material of an international scope, but focusing mainly on LGBTQ life in Australia, from the time of the Gold Rush to the battles against AIDS. This module includes the 122 titles in the ALGA periodical collection. Totalling over 216,000 pages, this is the largest collection of Australian LGBTQ periodicals available and provides a window into Australian LGBTQ history and culture from the 1970s to the 2000s.

    The ALGA periodicals provide coverage at a national level, such as OutRage and Gayzette, as well as state level, such as CAMP NSW Newsletter and Speaking Volumes (Adelaide). There are also titles specific to the large metropolitan centres such as Capital Q (Sydney) and Now in Melbourne, and titles covering issues and organisations such as AIDS Action (Canberra) and Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras Guide.

  • The Mirror Historical Archive, 1903-2000

    Explore the influential mass-market alternative to broadsheets that changed the course of British newspapers and journalism.

    The Daily Mirror Historical Archive extends the ‘mass market’ content available in Gale Historical Newspapers. The Daily Mirror (working-class) and the Daily Mail (middle class) challenged the broadsheet dominance of newspapers such as The Times and The Telegraph, providing both an alternative view and journalistic style which went on to dominate the British newspaper market in the second half of the twentieth century.

    Started by Alfred Harmsworth (later Lord Northcliffe) in 1903, The Daily Mirror was influential in changing the course of British newspapers in the second half of the twentieth century, becoming Britain’s bestselling daily newspaper by 1949. Consistently left-leaning and populist to reflect the views of its target working-class audience, it offers a counterpoint to the more conservative newspapers that dominated the late nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, such as The Times and The Telegraph.

    The Daily Mirror was originally started as a journal for respectable women, run by an all-female staff, aiming at a previously neglected mass-market audience that were not catered for by the major daily newspapers aimed at the professional (male) reader. Northcliffe had misjudged the audience, and the first version of the Mirror was a financial disaster. The combination of bad judgement, technological developments in rotary printing, and the success of illustrated papers such as the Graphic led to a change of approach. Briefly becoming the Daily Illustrated Mirror, the all-female staff were replaced, and it moved to a style of journalism and visual presentation borrowed from the successful American dailies: bold headlines, sensationalist content, and everyday language.

    In 1914, Northcliffe passed ownership of the Mirror to his brother Harold Harmsworth (Lord Rothermere), as he expanded his own newspaper ownership with new acquisitions including The Times. Rothermere’s right-wing politics saw the paper shift for a while, and readership declined among its core working-class readership. During this time, the Mirror’s biggest rival was another Northcliffe paper: the Daily Mail. Between the two newspapers, the Northcliffe’s had captured the mass-market audience: both populist in nature, the Daily Mail was primarily aimed at the middle-class reader while the Mirror catered for the working-class. The Mirror became the first truly ‘national’ newspaper in Britain when it opened a regional printing operation in Manchester to serve the north of England and Scotland, rather than a newspaper distributed around the country from London.

    Beginning in 1934, an overhaul led the Mirror to become the bestselling daily newspaper in Britain in 1949, and by 1951 it was selling over 4.5 million copies a day, more than double the Daily Mail. During this time, the Mirror had separated itself from its competitors by becoming unashamedly populist, becoming the newspaper of choice for everyday people. It introduced the tactics used by American newspapers that followed on from ‘yellow’ journalism, focusing on sensation, simple language, and typographical changes like bold headlines to catch the eye. The strategy paid off as its new editorial stance—critical the officials and their institutions—resonated with the mass audience during World War II, and it achieved one of the largest readerships among the armed forces during the War.

    The overwhelming financial success of the Daily Mail and the Daily Mirror during the mid-twentieth century—largely due to the lucrative advertising revenue gained from a mass market readership during a time of growing consumerism—started a change in British newspapers and journalism. Many other daily newspapers moved toward a tabloid approach as the business model became increasingly appealing, and those that did not began to struggle. While the Mirror continued to be successful, other significant rivals that remained closer to traditional ‘mass market broadsheets’ (such as the Daily Herald) disappeared.

    The Mirror began to decline in prominence after the 1960s, as it failed to judge the impact that the rise of television and youth culture would have on newspaper readership. Attempting to move slightly upmarket as the working-class became better educated and more affluent, it moved in the wrong direction and began to lose its audience, not helped by then Chairman Cecil King using it as a mouthpiece to further his own political ambitions. This was worsened by the emergence of a new generation of tabloid newspapers, led by The Sun: which was a relaunch of the failing Daily Herald that the Mirror Group had sold to Rupert Murdoch a few years before. By 1978, The Sun had overtaken the Mirror as the bestselling daily newspaper.

    After a decade of declining popularity and the political swing to Conservatism in the late 1970s leaving the newspaper catering for a smaller audience, The Mirror was sold to Robert Maxwell in 1984. When Maxwell died unexpectedly in 1991, the Mirror was left with significant debts, which led to its purchase by the Trinity Group in 1991, forming the Trinity-Mirror group (now Reach PLC). Despite the downturn in an increasingly competitive market since the 1980s, it remains one of the most historically significant newspapers in British history, prompting the change in approach that made it a distinctive voice among a market previously dominated by the broadsheets.


    1 Bingham, Adrian and Conboy, Martin: Tabloid Century: The Popular Press in Britain, 1896 to the present (Oxford, Peter Lang Ltd., 2015), pp.15.

  • The Making of Modern Law: U.S. Supreme Court Records and Briefs, 1832-1978

    Explore American legal history using documents from 140 years of cases before the U.S. Supreme Court.

    The Making of Modern Law: U.S. Supreme Court Records and Briefs, 1832-1978 contains the world's most comprehensive online collection of records and briefs brought before the nation's highest court by leading legal practitioners -- many who later became judges and associates of the court. It includes transcripts, applications for review, motions, petitions, supplements, and other official papers of the most-studied and talked-about cases, including many that resulted in landmark decisions. This collection serves the needs of students and researchers in American legal history, politics, society, and government, as well as practicing attorneys.

    Featuring background and context for the cases presented to the high court, The Making of Modern Law: U.S. Supreme Court Records and Briefs, 1832-1978 contains essential primary source material on every aspect of law -- civil rights law, constitutional law, corporate law, environmental law, gender law, labor law, legal history and legal theory, property law, taxation, and trademark and intellectual property law -- as well as the major topics in American history. A lawyer's brief often incorporates considerable historical, economic, and sociological data, which makes it a particularly rich archival source for lawyers, historians, and social scientists. From the generation before the American Civil War to the Vietnam War and Watergate, the collection offers an in-depth record of contemporary analytical writing by well-known social scientists, economists, sociologists, psychologists, social thinkers, scientists, historians, and academics.

    This collection is derived from two essential reference sources: Jenkins Memorial Law Library, America's first law library, and the Library of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York. In addition to the full text of all works within this collection, additional details associated with each work have been captured to facilitate searching and ensure accessibility. Several search indexes have been developed utilizing this metadata, providing users with unequaled access to the content and providing full details within the full citation created for each work.

    This collection includes topics centering on:

    • The interpretation of the Constitution and its amendments
    • Judicial review and the role of the courts in American history
    • States' rights and national sovereignty
    • Free enterprise, banking, and commerce
    • Discrimination and modern civil liberties
    • Intellectual property and technology
    • Evolving nature of race, gender, faith, and identity
    • And much more

    In addition, The Making of Modern Law: Supreme Court Records and Briefs, 1832-1978:

    • Brings together a primary source component that scholars traditionally depend upon in order to answer key questions in legal and constitutional history
    • Revolutionizes the study of the Supreme Court -- the apex of the American judicial system and a critical focus for students of American politics, government and history -- by offering a fully searchable online resource to all major issues brought before the Supreme Court
    • Presents 140 years of court history, allowing researchers to trace the evolution of modern law in the United States
    • Supports research in other applications, including American economic history, American social history, rhetoric and the interpretation of language, African American history and critical race theory, feminist studies and jurisprudence, philosophy and ethics, social studies, and more

    With full-text search capabilities on the facsimile pages, researchers can conduct precise searches and comparative research in every area of law. Records include:

    • Case name
    • Variant case name
    • Document type
    • Document file date
    • Supreme Court term year
    • Docket number
    • Alternate docket number
    • U.S. Reports citation
    • Supreme Court Reporter citation
    • Lawyer's Edition citation
    • Opinion date
    • Author (counsel) names, including personal and organizational names
    • Case heard


    The Making of Modern Law: U.S. Supreme Court Records and Briefs, 1832-1978 includes famous briefs written by leading attorneys (many who later became judges and associates of the Court) such as Louis D. Brandeis, Abe Fortas, Thurgood Marshall, and Ruth Bader Ginsburg. It also contains briefs written by institutions, corporations, and advocacy groups, including NAACP, the ACLU and The New York Times. It covers cases whose landmark decisions have become an essential part of American law, politics and history, including:

    • "Dred Scott v. Sandford" (1857) held that a black slave could not become a citizen under the U.S. Constitution
    • "Plessy v. Ferguson" (1896), delivered the famous "separate but equal" decision allowing for racial segregation in public transportation
    • "Schenck v. United States" (1919) enunciated the "clear and present danger" rule as a means of testing the validity of government interference with freedom of speech
    • "New York Times Co. v. United States" (1971) the famous case of the "Pentagon Papers" during the Vietnam War era
    • "United States v. Richard M. Nixon" (1974) ordered President Nixon to obey a subpoena directing him to surrender tape recordings of conversations made in the White House during the Watergate scandal
  • The Making of the Modern World, Part IV: 1800 - 1890

    The Making of the Modern World: Part IV offers definitive coverage of the “Age of Capital,” the industrial revolution, and the High Victorian Era, when the foundations of modern-day capitalism and global trade were established. It includes unique material at the Senate House Library, University of London, that was not previously available; subsequent library acquisitions have broadened the scope of the Goldsmiths' Library of Economic Literature beyond economics. The core of the collection – 1850s – 1890 – offers rich content in the high Victorian period, the apogee of the British Empire. It is especially strong in “grey literature” and nonmainstream materials rarely preserved by libraries—including pamphlets, plans, ephemera, and private collections.

    With access to all four of The Making of the Modern World modules users will have the world’s greatest economic literature collection at their desktops.

    This is a major collection of rare and unique items that support a range of research and teaching topics in the 19th century, including slavery & abolition, the growth of capitalism, and the emergence of new political thinking such as nationalism and Marxism. The material that has been newly scanned from this period also includes the rise of the United States and Germany as economic power houses.

    Part IV also captures the hard-to-reach formats such as plans and pamphlets. This technically challenging material is now surfacing and offering original study resources to researchers. Grey literature, private publications, flyers, broadsheets and ephemera are the focus of much modern scholarship precisely because it is non-mainstream, hard to find in libraries, physically vulnerable to damage, loss and mis-filing, and of huge value.

  • Refugees, Relief, and Resettlement: Forced Migration and World War II

    Refugees, Relief, and Resettlement: Forced Migration and World War II chronicles the plight of refugees and displaced persons across Europe, North Africa, and Asia from 1935 to 1950 through correspondence, reports, studies, organisational and administrative files, and much more. It is the first multi-sourced digital collection to consider the global scope of the refugee crisis leading up to, during, and after World War II.

    Gathered together from key sources that include The U.K. National Archives, the British Library, the National Archives Records Administration in the United States, and World Jewish Relief, this archive documents the history of forced migration to uncover the hidden history of those displaced from their homes and the relief, resettlement, and repatriation efforts that followed.

    The archive chronicles not only the plight of those made to resettle inside and outside national borders owing to war and ethnic and political persecution, it also addresses the unique factors to give rise to the many kinds of refugees, from evacuees and displaced persons, to population transferees and forced labourers.

    Refugees, Relief and Resettlement: Forced Migrations and World War II represents an ambitious first step in a series of titles that will explore the history of refugeeism from the late 19th century through mid- to late 20th century.



    Relates to Current Issues: Forced migration represents one of the most pressing issues of our time. From the flight of Rohingya from Myanmar and Syrians from their homeland to longstanding crises in Sudan and Afghanistan, the world refugee crisis has in the last decade reached levels not seen since the end of the Second World War. In the same way, refugee influxes today have transformed government policy in this age of Brexit, Donald Trump, and European nationalism. Refugees, Relief, and Resettlement: Forced Migration and World War II sheds light on how the nearly 60 million displaced people by the war’s end would significantly reshape post-war diplomacy, political life, and society.

    Growing Academic Field of Study: The study of forced migration, or refugee studies, is an expanding field as the plight and presence of refugees gain ever more media attention and require a growing number of professionals to address the needs of these populations. Alongside programs dedicated entirely to refugee studies, courses and course sections on refugee issues in a variety of disciplines in the humanities and social sciences is matched only by the rapid growth of peer-reviewed publications on this topic.

    Interdisciplinary Nature and Global in Scope: Refugee studies is cross-disciplinary by nature, drawing in scholars of history, economics, psychology, public health, sociology, anthropology, religion, language and literature and nearly all regions within area studies/global studies.

    Refugees, Relief, and Resettlement: Forced Migration and World War II includes the following collections which are being digitized for the first time:

    • Refugee Records from the General Correspondence Files of the Political Departments of the Foreign Office, Record Group 371, 1938-1950, sourced from The National Archives, Kew
    • Refugee Files from the Records of the Foreign Office, 1938-1950, sourced from The  National Archives, Kew
    • Refugee Records from the War Cabinet, the Colonial Office, the Home Office and the War Office, 1935-1949, sourced from The National Archives, Kew
    • Documentation from these three collections together address the plight of various ethnicities: Albanian, Arab, Armenian, Assyrian, Austrian, Baltic, Belgian, British, Bulgarian, Chinese, Czech, Ethiopian, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Jewish, Latvian, Norwegian, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Spanish, Ukrainian, and Yugoslavian.
    • Also included are displaced populations fleeing from or being resettled in: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, British Guyana, Central and Eastern Europe, China, Cyprus, Denmark, East, North, and Southwest Africa, Egypt, Ethiopia, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Jamaica, Mauritius, North Africa, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Rhodesia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanganyika, the Middle East, the United Kingdom, Turkey, and Yugoslavia



    We released experience and design enhancements to The Making of Modern Law resources on Friday July 31st, which contained:

    • Enhanced product platform
    • Improved accessibility
    • Smarter search results
    • Streamlined user interface
    • Secure product access

    We’re doing everything we can to ensure that these enhancements launch seamlessly to your end-users. In regards to MARC records, all existing URLs will continue to work, and started automatically redirecting on July 31st.


    At the end of July, this archive collection was renamed as Introductions to U.S. History, and is now part of the Archives Unbound product range. Most significantly, it is now cross-searchable on the Gale Primary Sources platform for the first time!


    Sources in U.S. History Online: The American Revolution is a digital archive documenting the revolution and war that created the United States of America, from the Paris peace treaty in 1763 through the early protests in 1785 to the Paris peace treaty of 1783. The collection examines the political, social, and intellectual upheaval of the age, as well as the actual war for American independence through its eight long years of conflict. A wealth of material from the European point of view is included.

    The archive tells the whole story of the American Revolution -- the experiences of commanders and common soldiers, women and slaves, American Indians and Loyalists are all recorded. A variety of primary source documents -- personal narratives and memoirs, political pamphlets and speeches, sermons and poems, legislative journals and popular magazines, maps and more -- cover the diversity of:

    • Battles -- from the Battle of Bunker Hill to the siege of Yorktown
    • Individuals -- from John Adams to Edmund Burke
    • Organizations -- from the American Philosophical Society to the Whig Party
    • Perspectives -- from the American loyalists to patriot preachers
    • Places -- from Falmouth, England, to Fort Ticonderoga, New York
    • Topics -- from agriculture to valor
    • And more

    Sources in U.S. History Online: The American Revolution allows researchers to examine economics, international relations, religion, and science as well as the strategies and battlefield realities of combatants on both sides of the conflict. The archive provides a rich sense of the causes and consequences of one of the great turning points in history.


    Sources in U.S. History Online: The Civil War documents the war that transformed America, ending slavery and unifying the nation around the principles of freedom. The collection examines the war and all its complexity -- its causes and consequences, its battles and campaigns, its political and religious aspects, the experiences of its leaders and common soldiers, the home front and the military campground, and more.

    This digital archive includes a variety of primary source documents -- personal narratives and memoirs, pamphlets and political speeches, sermons and songs, regimental histories and photograph albums, legal treatises, and children's books -- unveiling a time when friends were enemies and the United States were torn in half. Users can read about:

    • Battles -- some of the bloodiest in U.S. history
    • Military tactics and technology -- rifled barrels, trench warfare and other tactics and technology that pioneered modern warfare
    • Individuals -- William T. Sherman, Jubal A. Early, and others from both sides of the conflict
    • Societal impact -- sanitation, medicine, civilian life, clergy response, and more
    • Law, government, and foreign policy -- the rights of secession, Britain's view of the war, abolition of slavery, constitutional debates, presidential elections, and more

    Every aspect of the Civil War is covered: military, diplomatic, and cultural and legal history as well as special areas of study, including Southern history, African American history, medical history, history of technology, and more.


    No study of the United States is complete without detailed research on the issue of slavery and its impact on American society and culture. Sources in U.S. History Online: Slavery in America documents key aspects of the history of slavery in the United States, from its origins in Africa to its abolition, including materials on the slave trade, plantation life, emancipation, pro-slavery and anti-slavery arguments, religious views on slavery, and other related topics.

    This digital archive provides access to a wide variety of documents -- personal narratives, political speeches, sermons, plays, songs, poetic and fictional works, and more -- published from the time of the transatlantic slave trade to the post-Civil War period. Users will find information surrounding important individuals, influential perspectives, controversial topics, key cases, and significant events, including Harriet Tubman and the underground railroad, the Fifteenth Amendment, and the New York African Free School.

    Primary sources are the most relevant materials for information about the influential events in U.S. history because they are written by those who witnessed it. Sources in U.S. History Online: Slavery in America provides researchers with unprecedented access to the essential documents that tell the story of slavery and the fight for abolition -- a complex topic that is critical to any study of U.S. history. Vernon Burton, Coastal Carolina University, and Troy Smith, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign reviewed a list of thousands of titles from several Gale collections -- including Sabin Americana, 1500-1926Travels in the Old South, the Anti-Slavery Collection from Oberlin College, and The Making of Modern Law -- to select the most meaningful and relevant documents for this comprehensive survey of slavery in America.



VP of Primary Sources publishing, Seth Cayley, gives a deeper look at The Mirror Historical Archive:


An extended look at International Perspectives on LGBTQ Activism and Culture:


New Contextual Essays:

Gale Digital Scholar Lab Case Studies:

Read our new case studies, which focus on how Gale Primary Sources and Gale Digital Scholar Lab are being used at Universities around the world.

Embracing the Spirit Of Discovery at Fudan University with Gale Scholar and Gale Digital Scholar Lab

Fudan University, China


Driving Departmental Change and Teaching Digital Humanities Courses with Gale Digital Scholar Lab

University of Adelaide, Australia



To make sure we are sending you the communications you are interested in, we have added a new section to the website where you can keep your details up to date, and let us know what topics you would like to be kept informed on.



We have created a new section on the website that lists the improvements and enhancements we have made to the Gale Primary Sources platform, and a preview of upcoming developments.



In order to be COUNTER 5 compliant, monograph-based archives on our updated platform no longer calculate retrievals at the page-level, but at the title-level: therefore, it is expected that retrievals for monograph-based archives will have decreased since the December. There is a particular issue with Archives Unbound, Making of the Modern World, and Sabin Americana which is causing retrievals to be underrepresented due to a separate problem, which will be corrected starting in March.


As of November 1 2019, the years 1995-2015 of the magazine archive are also available as a one-time purchase (previously subscription only). The years 1995-current can still be purchased as a subscription if you wish to buy the base archive covering 1888-1994.


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