MARCH 2022



Digitised primarily from the British Foreign Office Files FO 17 series, together with several volumes of law officers’ reports from the FO 83 series, this archive is a continuation of Imperial China and the West Part I, 1815–1881. It provides scholars with valuable insight and detail into every aspect of Chinese-Western relations from 1865 to 1905, ranging from diplomacy to trade and economy, politics, military, Chinese emigration, law, and translation and language studies.


Unique for its high level of centralisation and interdepartmental communication, the British intelligence and security services reached every corner of the world during a century of global conflicts, high-stakes diplomacy, and political upheaval. The files cover the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) and place the all-important work of signals intelligence in the Second World War alongside the central machinery of intelligence at the Cabinet Office. This unique archive provides extensive detail on the work of GCHQ, vital for the study of military history, intelligence and security, international politics and diplomacy of the twentieth century, and the global history of World War II.


This collection provides the near-complete papers of the first organisation to address Native American interests and rights. Newly digitised, it thoughtfully illustrates and contextualises the story of Indigenous peoples in the United States and Canada with a depth and breadth of content that is unprecedented. Because of the source’s origins in the late 1800s, a portion of the correspondence is handwritten. Gale’s handwritten text recognition (HTR) technology enables full-text searching of the early history of the Indian Rights Association.


Digitised for the first time, this unique collection of legal works brings together records and briefs from 1891 to 1950 for those cases that have most influenced research in modern American law and legal history. The Making of Modern Law: Landmark Records and Briefs of the U.S. Courts of Appeals, Part II: 1891–1950 aims to address questions concerning the administration of justice; the adversary process; and the developing relationship between law and the social sciences, humanities, and sciences.


This fourth installment of the Women’s Studies Archive program focuses on individual women and organisations around the world who have broken new paths in society through business, social reform, popular culture, health care, and more. Highlights include contributions of African American women trailblazers; nursing journals from around the world, including Britain, Australia, Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean; popular magazines from Australia and New Zealand; and collections concerning the supernatural and crime.


Over the coming months we’re hoping to make some changes to ECCO. One of our goals is to remediate the OCR text for approximately 10% of the corpus: we want it to be the most useful content to users. Based on usage analysis and key research trends, we have identified specific areas to focus on, including (but not limited to):

  • Works in French and German, works written by women authors, BIPOC authors and by ‘prominent’ 18th Century authors
  • Alongside this work to improve the underlying OCR, we are also going to be making improvements to the platform, driven by your needs.




Library Journal names two Gale Primary Sources products in the Best Databases of 2021

Declassified Documents Online: Twentieth-Century British Intelligence, An Intelligence Empire

“A must for scholars of British history...Impeccable organization and robust search functions only add to the resource’s utility.” 

Archives of Sexuality and Gender: International Perspectives on LGBTQ Activism and Culture

“This internationally focused resource chronicles the experiences and perspectives of LGBTQ activism…a crucial and unique database that surfaces materials that many similar resources omit.” 

Interested in any of these products?  |  REQUEST A TRIAL

Looking for older editions?  |   VISIT THE 2020-2021 ARCHIVE


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Political Extremism and Radicalism

Watch our new videos for this award-winning archive!

Far-Right Groups in America - What might surprise you about the archive?

Studying archives is intended to better our understanding of the past but Far-Right Groups in America goes beyond that to explain the political and societal thinking of the present. The rise of polarised politics as well as the resurgence of radical right-wing movements in Western democracies in the last ten years means Far-Right Groups in America fully supports researchers concerned with mainstream politics and how the attitudes, opinions and tolerances evolve over time. In addition a unique feature of this collection is the inclusion of audio recordings. In addition to the variety of political ephemera, The James Aho collection from Idaho State University, also includes 254 audio recordings. These include sermons, interviews and lecturers from the 1970s and 1980s considered to be, or concerning far-right extremism. 



Would you like to know more? Take a look at the other videos here


  • Declassified Documents Online: Twentieth Century British Intelligence, Monitoring the World

    Unique for its high level of centralisation and interdepartmental communication, the British intelligence and security services reached every corner of the world during a century of global conflicts, high-stakes diplomacy, and political upheaval. The files contained in Declassified Documents Online: Twentieth-Century British Intelligence, Monitoring the World cover the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) place the all-important work of signals intelligence in the Second World War alongside the central machinery of intelligence at the Cabinet Office. This unique archive provides extensive detail on the work of GCHQ, vital for the study of military history, intelligence and security, international politics and diplomacy of the twentieth century, and the global history of World War II.

    Declassified Documents Online: Twentieth Century British Intelligence, Monitoring the World brings together files from two UK government departments to provide researchers with access to detailed, previously classified information on the intelligence services of Britain throughout the twentieth century.

    The Cabinet Office: 10 series from the Central Intelligence Machinery, Joint Intelligence Committee or Sub-Committees and the Overseas Joint Intelligence Groups, covering 1939-1985. These groups are concerned with the tasking of the security and intelligence Agencies, the processing of intelligence and its dissemination to Ministers, to the Chiefs of Staff and to other agencies.

    • CAB 159: Ministry of Defence and Cabinet Office: Central Intelligence Machinery: Joint Intelligence Sub-Committee later Committee: Minutes (JIC Series), 1947-1968
    • CAB 163: War Cabinet, Ministry of Defence, and Cabinet Office: Central Intelligence Machinery: Joint Intelligence Sub-Committee, later Committee: Secretariat: Files, 1939-1986
    • CAB 179: Ministry of Defence and Cabinet Office: Central Intelligence Machinery: Joint Intelligence Committee: Weekly Reviews and Surveys (WRCI, JIC(WSI))
    • CAB 182: Cabinet Office: Central Intelligence Machinery: Joint Intelligence Committee: Sub-Committees, Working Parties etc: Minutes, Memoranda and Papers.
    • CAB 185: Cabinet Office: Central Office Machinery: Joint Intelligence Committee (A): Minutes (JIC(A), JIC)
    • CAB 186: Cabinet Office: Central Intelligence Machinery: Joint Intelligence Committee: Memoranda (JIC(A), JIC)
    • CAB 188: Cabinet Office: Central Intelligence Machinery: Joint Intelligence Committee (B) and Overseas Economic Intelligence Committee: Minutes, Memoranda and Other Documents
    • CAB 190: Cabinet Office: Central Intelligence Machinery: Joint Intelligence Committee: Working Groups and Working Parties Minutes and Reports (INT Series)
    • CAB 191: Overseas Joint Intelligence Groups: Fragmentary Records

    GCHQ: 17 series covering 1914-1949. Files include decrypts, details on imperial and international intelligence collection and distribution, weekly summary reports, and official histories, particularly of intelligence during the Second World War.

    • HW 3: GC&CS and predecessors: Personal Papers, Unofficial Histories, Foreign Office X Files and Miscellaneous Records
    • HW 4: GC&CS: Far East Combined Bureau, Signals Intelligence Centre in the Far East (HMS Anderson): Records
    • HW 51: GC&CS: Combined Bureau Middle East (CBME): Records
    • HW 52: GC&CS: Central Bureau, Brisbane: Reports
    • HW 7: Room 40 and successors: World War I Official Histories
    • HW 11: GC&CS: World War II Official Histories
    • HW 12: GC&CS: Diplomatic Section and predecessors: Decrypts of Intercepted Diplomatic Communications (BJ Series)
    • HW 13: GC&CS: Second World War Intelligence Summaries Based on Sigint
    • HW 14: GC&CS: Directorate: Second World War Policy Papers
    • HW 15: GC&CS and Government Communications Headquarters: Venona Project: Records
    • HW 20: GC&CS: Tactical Sigint forwarded to Allied Commands: Summaries
    • HW 41: GC&CS: Services Field Signals Intelligence Units: Reports of Intercepted Signals and Histories of Field Signals Intelligence Units
    • HW 43: GC&CS: Histories of British Sigint
    • HW 44: GC&CS: Summary Reports, Second World War in the Far East
    • HW 49: GC&CS: Special Liaison Units: Histories
    • HW 60: GC&CS: Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) Signals Intelligence: Records
    • HW 61: GC&CS: Records relating to Commonwealth and Allied Signals Intelligence Organisations

    The series included in Monitoring the World illustrate the worldwide interception and global reach of British security agencies throughout the century.

  • Indigenous People of North America, Part II: Indian Rights Association, 1882‒1986

    This archive provides a near-complete record of the efforts of the first organization to address Native American interests and rights.  This collection contains incoming and outgoing correspondence; organizational records; printed material (including early pamphlets and publications both by the Indian Rights Association and other American Indian and Indian-related organizations); Indian Rights Association annual reports; draft legislation; administrative files, the papers of Indian Rights Association founder Herbert Welsh, photographs (often from Western field trips), materials from the Council on Indian Affairs, and manuscripts and research notes regarding social and cultural Indian traditions. 

    Founded in 1882, The Indian Rights Association became one of the best-known nongovernmental organizations in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century to support American Indians. Founded by White philanthropists, the Indian Rights Association exemplifies the troubling history and the transformation over time of White-Indian alliances over the course of the twentieth century.  Like other White-led organizations, the Indian Rights Association adopted the paternalistic, assimilationist views current at the turn of the century, advocating for detribalization as the most effective means of improving the economic and social status of American Indians in the United States. At the same time, the Association also served as one of the first watchdog organizations to report on and expose the abuses of civil servants assigned by the federal government to work with American Indian communities. In time, the Indian Rights Association would relinquish its assimilationist views, ally itself with new, sometimes Indian-run, organizations such as the Society of American Indians, the National Indian Defense Association, and the Association on American Indian Affairs. 
    The Indian Rights Association would gain recognition among non-Indian audiences and legislators in Washington, D.C., as a key source of information on American Indians affairs. Although the organization in its early years advocated policies that ultimately had adverse impacts on American Indian communities, it also regularly combated myths and half-truths that regularly formed the basis of legislation and policy affecting American Indians. The Indian Rights Association sought to remedy this lack of reliable information among U.S. government officials and the general population through pamphlets, newsletters, reports, and much else.

    The organization began by employing its own agents to tour Indian reservations, where they record information on local conditions that served as background material for legislation as well as a source of the independent evaluation of the work of employees of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Over the century of its existence, the activities of the Indian Rights Association included:

    • monitoring congressional legislation and the policies and actions of the Board of Indian Commissioners, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), and the Department of the Interior
    • lobbying on behalf of Indian tribes and nations
    • supporting the emergence of multiple organizations, both Indian and non-Indian, devoted to helping and supporting Native communities
    • cooperating with other pro-Indian social organizations in order to consolidate legal efforts in state and federal courts
    • supporting efforts to raise awareness of Indian issues through the development of curriculum for schools and universities
    • assisting tribes and reservations in the building of health clinics
    • formulating guidelines for tribes to operate under federal policy effectively
    • mediating on behalf of tribes with the federal government to restore recognition statutes
    • providing testimony and position papers defending the right of American Indians to hold their own political processes
    • enlisting experts to produce authoritative documentation on specific issues affecting American Indians
    • collecting subject files, legal briefs, literature, and material related to issues in which the association took a specific interest, from representing land claims by Seneca, Wampanoag, Narragansett and other regional tribes to mediating Navajo-Hopi land disputes.


The Making of Modern Law:

Landmark Records and Briefs of the U.S. Courts of Appeals, Part II: 1891–1950



  • Find out more

    This archive addresses questions concerning the administration of justice, the adversary process, and the developing relationship between law and the social sciences, humanities, and sciences. These records are interesting on the human level - they are not just abstracts on legal issues, they are valuable historical documents in their own right.

    This collection includes all circuits, including the major ones:

    • Second (New York) - enormously influential, especially for business and corporate law
    • DC (Washington, DC) – includes federal cases
    • Ninth (California) – a key circuit, particularly on western U.S. issues


    It aims to address questions such as: How much was the work of sociologists, psychologists, and historians cited? What attention did the courts pay to those citations? What nonlegal evidence was brought to court or cited? Did the court pay attention?

    Researchers will be able to gain insights into legal reasoning used by the parties in advocating their position and to identify the authorities used to support an argument.

    The briefs in this collection are not readily available - this is effectively a rescue operation, opening material that is inaccessible to many researchers. Law and humanities libraries that serve scholars and students in twentieth-century American social history and politics will find this archive of special interest.

    The variety of information in the records and briefs includes:

    • Cases on wartime issues raised during both World Wars and cases affecting conscientious objectors to the internment of Japanese Americans
    • Decisions that focused on American Indian rights with respect to land claims, treaty enforcement, and other matters of critical interest to Indigenous communities
    • Briefs related to federal economic and labor regulations, such as reviews of decisions of the Interstate Commerce Commission as well as the work of those agencies created by the New Deal
    • Rulings that reflect changes in criminal law, with the expansion in the scope of federal crimes and enforcement of laws related to censorship, sedition (resistance against lawful authority), Prohibition, and more
    • Cases that address the changing state of labor relations as new laws at the state and federal levels came into effect with respect to child labor, union organising, and worker safety
  • New functionality in this archive

    The collection features briefs (appellants’, appellees’, reply, amicus), appendices, memoranda, petitions, transcripts, and more from all Courts of Appeals, including these major circuits:

    • Second Circuit, New York—one of the most influential, often cited in business and copyright law rulings
    • District of Columbia Circuit, Washington, D.C.—especially relevant to cases on constitutional and administrative law
    • Ninth Circuit, California—regarded as the most liberal of circuit courts

    The circuits/collections are the same for Part I and Part II, since there are only 10 circuits plus the District of Columbia circuit. All new content has been added to the existing circuits/collections.



    To support the research needs of legal scholars, we have built support for the following search fields:

    • Case Name: Searches for any word or words in the case name
    • Brief Name: Searches for any word or words in the brief name
    • Reporter Citation: Searches for documents for a case matching specific Federal Reporter citation.
      • For example: 425 F.2d 853
    • Docket Number: Searches for documents for a case matching specific court Docket Number.
      • For example: 711510


    • Circuit: Limits your search to documents for cases that were heard by specific circuit court. 
    • File Date: Limits your search to documents for cases that were filed on a specific date or within a range of dates. 
    • Opinion Date: Limits your search to documents for cases for which an opinion was issued by the court on a specific date or within a range of dates. 



    Researchers can also:

    • Browse Circuits: Browse content by circuit court.
    • Browse Cases: Browse an alphabetical list of all available court cases in the database. Select a case to see all of its associated documents.
    • Browse Authors: Browse an alphabetical list of authors (counsel) and authoring bodies. Select an author to see all of their associated documents.




Gale Digital Scholar Lab Enhancements

  • What are the latest updates to the Gale Digital Scholar Lab?

    This release is part of our ongoing enhancements to the user experience - and we are sharing a Preview Experience within the current interface.

    The updated tools offer new functionality to address user feedback, focusing on the need to move between distant and close reading. This includes interactive visualizations and inspect panels that allow the examination of high-level patterns across content sets, and then the ability to drill down to both grouped and individual documents for close reading. For example, a new Parts of Speech group by capability lets customers compare parts of speech across authors, content types, document types, publishers, and source libraries in a customizable column layout.

    With this release, the following tools and sections will join Sentiment Scores, NER, and Ngrams tools in the Preview Experience that is still under development:


    Document Clustering


    Topic Modeling: Topics and Topic Proportions


    Parts of Speech


Archives of Sexuality and Gender: L’Enfer de la Bibliothèque nationale de France

Get under the covers of some of the world’s most forbidden works.

The Enfer (“hell”) collection from the Bibliothèque nationale de France is one of the most storied and sought-after private case collections in the world. First created in the 1830s, it contains erotic content dating from 1531 to 2012 that was considered contrary to public morality.

Historically restricted access to the collection means the material is well preserved and can now be accessed digitally worldwide, allowing in-depth study of what was once considered the darker side of gender and sexuality.

Hear from Marie-Françoise Quignard, Honorary Curator of the collection, as she explains the name "Enfer," provides a deep dive into some of the fascinating texts, comments on how the collection (and attitudes towards it) have evolved over time, and finishes by explaining why this collection is of such interest and value to researchers.



Our first Learning Centers are available now!

We are pleased to announce the launch of the first phase of Learning Centers for Gale Primary Sources. Now available in 12 products, the Learning Centers support teaching and learning with digital primary sources.

Built with the student researcher in mind, the goal of the Learning Centers is to orient new users with the content and topics available in our unique digital archives; spark inspiration for new research topics; and provide guidance and best practices for searching, browsing, citing, and reusing primary sources. The Learning Centers provide an all-in-one instructional tool that helps students get acclimated with a primary source database.

  • Find out more

    You can access the Learning Centers in these products from the main toolbar:

    Workflow steps are based on the learning objectives outlined in the ACRL/SAA Guidelines for Primary Source Literacy:

    1. Conceptualize
    2. Find
    3. Read
    4. Use

    • Content is tailored to each unique archive and was developed in-house by product experts
    • Sample searches help students to see search queries in action
    • Scaffolding questions encourage critical thinking and engagement with topics
    • Translate all Learning Center content in over 40 languages
    • Add to LMS with “Get Link”

  • Which archives are they in?

    Crime, Punishment, and Popular Culture, 1790–1920

    Daily Mail Historical Archive, 1896–2016

    International Herald Tribune Historical Archive 1887–2013

    Mirror Historical Archive, 1903–2000

    Public Health Archives: Public Health in Modern America, 1890–1970

    Punch Historical Archive, 1841–1992

    Refugees, Relief, and Resettlement: Forced Migration and World War II

    Religions of America

    Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century Burney Newspapers Collection

    Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century Nichols Newspapers Collection

    The Telegraph Historical Archive, 1855–2016

    The Times Digital Archive, 1785–2019

Promoting your Gale Primary Sources

Download sets of digital assets and print files to help you raise awareness of the archives available at your library. Digital assets are downloaded as a .zip folder, and print files are downloaded individually*. For customers who wish to order the print resources, contact your local representative to check availability.

For archives that consist of multiple parts, you can download the assets for the overall series, or for the individual parts that are currently available at your library.


DIGITAL: Social media images  |  HD display screen  |  Announcement copy (editable) and header image for internal communications | QR code

PRINT: A3 and slimline posters   |   A6 Postcards   |   Bookmarks