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The records of the Board of Foreign Missions (BFM) of the Presbyterian church provide valuable information on social conditions in developing Third World nations and on efforts to spread the gospel during the nineteenth century. Among the missions' responsibilities was the establishment of indigenous churches, educational facilities, hospitals, orphanages, and seminaries. The majority of materials is incoming correspondence from the mission field and outgoing correspondence from the Board headquarters. Other primary sources include diary accounts, sermon manuscripts, receipts of sale, and field accounts.
The documents in this collection are predominantly instructions to and dispatches from U.S. diplomatic and consular staff regarding political, economic, military, social, and other internal conditions in Japan. Documents also include reports and memoranda prepared by U.S. State Department staff, communications between the State Department and foreign governments, and correspondence with other departments of the U.S. government, private firms, and individuals. Contained here are U.S. Department of State Decimal Files 794, 894, and 994, entitled Records Relating to the Internal Affairs of Japan, for the years 1955-1959.
This archive is based on the microfilm title Records of the Department of State Relating to the Internal Affairs of China, 1945-1949. Part of the General Record of the Department of State, the files are in Class 8: Internal Affairs of States. The document are primarily instructions to -- and dispatches from -- U.S. diplomatic and consular staff. Subjects include politics, military affairs, economy, and society, with separate files on provinces such as Manchuria, Yunnan, and Tibet. Folders on narcotics, entertainment, motion pictures, and other topics are also featured.
Spanning the years 1901-1918, this publication "devoted to the coal industry" provides a unique research opportunity. The coal industry was a major foundation for American industrialization. As a fuel source, coal provided a cheap and efficient source of power for steam engines, furnaces, and forges across America. As an economic pursuit, coal spurred innovations in technology, energy consumption, consumerism, and transportation. When mining companies brought increased sophistication to the organization of work in the mines, coal miners responded by organizing into trade unions. The influence of coal was so pervasive in America that by the advent of the twentieth century, it became a necessity of everyday life. This publication traces the expansion of the coal industry in the early twentieth century and brings to life the trials and tribulations of a burgeoning industry.
The history of Colombia following the Second World War was most notably marked by La Violencia (The Violence), a ten-year civil war spanning the years 1948 to 1958, between the Colombian Conservative Party and the Colombian Liberal Party. Covering primarily the early Cold War documents, this collection gives researchers a unique insight into American foreign policy during one of its most stressful periods in international relations. After World War II, with only two superpowers vying for influence, access, and control, the United States looked to its state department to provide detailed analyses and insight into political affairs. As such these records are bound to be of great interest to diplomatic historians and historians studying these countries, seeking to understand American foreign affairs during this period. The documents found in these files are predominantly instructions to ��� and despatches from ��� diplomatic and consular officials and are often accompanied by enclosures. Notes between the Department of State and foreign diplomats in the United States, memoranda prepared by State Department officials, and correspondence with officials of other government departments, as well as with private businesses and persons, are also included.
This collection of U.S. State Department Central Classified Files relates to commercial and trade relations beginning in the Tsarist Russia period and extending through Khrushchev period in Soviet history. It contains a wide range of materials from U.S. diplomats including materials on treaties, general conditions affecting trade, imports and exports, laws and regulations, customs administration, tariffs, and ports of entry activities.
Early in the 19th century various denominations and non-denominational organizations began to create Sunday schools in an effort to educate the illiterate, particularly children. By mid-century, the Sunday school movement had become extremely popular and Sunday school attendance was a near universal aspect of childhood. Working-class families were grateful for this opportunity to receive an education. Religious education was, of course, always also a core component. The Bible was the textbook used for learning to read. Likewise, many children learned to write by copying out passages from the Scriptures. A basic catechism was also taught, as were spiritual practices such as prayer and hymn-singing. Inculcating Christian morality and virtues was another goal of the movement. Sunday school pupils often graduated to become Sunday school teachers, thereby gaining an experience of leadership not to be found elsewhere in their lives.
This collection is designed as a case study of minority involvement in a presidential election campaign, using the 1936 Democratic Campaign as a model. The 1936 election provides an excellent example partly because of the availability of manuscript material on the Good Neighbor League, a vital force in helping make minorities part of the Roosevelt coalition in 1936. Bringing together such a coalition was not a chance occurrence, but a well-planned political move whose basic premise was the New Deal legislative program. Minorities proved by their participation that they would be a significant influence in elections to come.
Evangelism in India took the form primarily of village itineration where male and female missionaries ministered to the spiritual needs of the populace while simultaneously attending to their medical and educational needs. The collection documents the Board of Foreign Missions' tripartite ministry (Farukhabad, Punjab, and the West Indian missions) in India but also reflects the development of the modern Indian state in a broader sense. Reaction to foreigners generally and Protestant missionaries specifically, discontent with British rule and the development of the Independence movement, and racial and internecine religious warfare between Hindu and Muslim populations are well documented.
The Changing Men Collections (CMC) comprises the largest research collection of materials about the modern men���s movement in the United States and throughout the world. Over 400 vertical files document the development of the men���s movement during the last 25 years. Consisting of research materials on key issues affecting contemporary men, there is information on such topics as men���s consciousness raising, masculinity, initiation rites, men in therapy, men���s emotional healing, African American men, battered men, circumcision, anger management, ecomasculinity, teen fathers, relationships, shadow work, men���s supports networks, and the ManKind Project. The files also represent the work of a variety of diverse men���s groups from throughout the world, as well as conference proceedings from the American Men���s Studies Association, Chicago Men���s Gathering, National Conferences on Men & Masculinity, among others.
This collection presents the complete files of the Political Warfare Executive (PWE) kept at the U.K. National Archives as FO 898 from its instigation to closure in 1946, along with the secret minutes of the special 1944 War Cabinet Committee "Breaking the German Will to Resist."
The USIA started in 1953 as an independent foreign affairs agency within the executive branch charged with the conduct of public diplomacy in support of U.S. foreign policy. Public diplomacy complements and reinforces traditional diplomacy by communicating directly with foreign publics through a wide range of international information, educational, and cultural exchange activities. This collection is from USIA's Office of Research and represents international public opinion and public diplomacy. Countries and/or territories within this collection may have some or all of the following information as part of the U.S. Information Agency���s collection of research: Cuban and Soviet domestic and international media news; foreign country politics and government, economy, and/or social conditions; foreign relations; relations with the U.S.; international trade relations; broadcast and print media; films and filmmaking; international news and news media information; international public opinion of Voice of America radio broadcasts; issues relating South and North Vietnam and the Vietnamese conflict; Bosnia War, 1991-1995; international public opinion on select world developments.
The subject matter is varied, and deals with many aspects of Canadian history, literature, social and political conditions. Included are pamphlets on religion and churches, all levels of government, elections, peace movements and war service, Communism, local communities and labour organizations, to name but a few of the topics covered. Approximately 250 pamphlets date from before 1867. Several of the pamphlets are in the French language.
German Colonial aspirations in Asia and the Pacific ended with the start of the First World War. Japanese Army forces seized German leased territories in China and the Japanese naval forces occupied the German Pacific colonies. The Treaty of Versailles legitimized Japan���s aggression and the territories were officially mandated to the Japanese government. This collection comprises correspondence, studies and reports, cables, maps, and other kinds of documents related to U.S. consular activities. U.S. Consulates were listening posts reporting on the activities of the German colonial governments and later the Japanese mandate authorities, and the activities of the native peoples.
The Dominican Republic has experienced many setbacks on the road to democracy. Dominican political history has been defined by traditions of ���personalism,��� militarism, and social and economic elitism which has undermined its efforts to establish liberal constitutional rule. This collection includes State Department, U.S. Embassy, and Dominican republic governmental dispatches, instructions, and miscellaneous correspondence dealing with topics such as political affairs and government; public order and safety; military affairs; social matters (including history and culture); economic conditions (including immigration and emigration); industry and agriculture; communications and transportation; and navigation. The material is in English, making the information contained in these files particularly accessible.
From the moment he entered the United States in 1933, Albert Einstein was under constant surveillance by the FBI, which was alarmed by his advocacy of peace through world government and his support for Zionism. This file chronicles the daily activities and findings of agents assigned to Einstein over the years.
Robert Winslow Gordon (1888-1961), a native of Maine, attended Harvard College and taught in the department of English at the University of California at Berkeley. His monthly column in Adventure Magazine, "Old Songs that Men Sing," attracted attention from readers across the United States, and he received thousands of letters containing songs and queries. In 1928 Gordon became the first archivist of the Archive of American Folk Song (now the Archive of Folk Culture) in the Library of Congress. He was a pioneer in using mechanical means to document folk musicians, and his cylinders and discs in the Library of Congress form part of his legacy. The collection of Gordon manuscripts contained here, primarily from 1922 to 1932, offers researchers online access to the daily workings of an important twentieth-century American folklorist.
This collection consists of two full series and one partial series from the Records of the United Garment Workers of America���Series I: Time and Motion Studies; Series III: Office Files, 1899-1994���Meeting Minutes of the General Executive Board subseries; and, Series VIII: Index Card Files for plants and/or locals in. The Time and Motion Studies are made up of time study/ time and motion research files for the garment industry, as well as files relating to industry research and information from the first half of the twentieth century. The minutes from the early period cover issues such as immigration, sick benefits, and nine-hour work days; those from the 1950s are concerned partly with the trial and ultimate dismissal of Board member Joseph Crispino; and those from the latter period contain issues such as the financial struggles and the loss of membership. The overwhelming majority of the Series VIII index card files comprise information on various plants and union locals. These are in alphabetical order by city (with a few exceptions) and contain information about the locals, manufacturers, wages, garments, and efforts to organize locals in those cities.
This collection charts the Axis occupation during World War II and the terrible hardships experienced by the Greek civilian population.
After 40 years of failed Indian policy, the U.S. Senate called these hearings to see what could be done to improve matters. Under the Dawes Act (or General Allotment Act) of 1887, tribal lands previously held in common by Indian nations had been split up into small parcels for individual owners. The government had said this was because it wanted to encourage self-sufficient farming, but under the Dawes Act some parcels could be sold to non-Indians and Native American owners could lose their land if they became too poor to pay taxes or debts. Forty years later the Secretary of the Interior ordered an investigation into the consequences of the Dawes Act, and in 1928 its 160-page "Merriam Report" declared that allotment had been a disaster for Native American communities. Non-Indians had acquired almost half of all Indian lands in the U.S., and poverty, disease, and anger had all skyrocketed on reservations. In 1928 the Senate ordered the new hearings excerpted here, in order to figure out how to fix the situation. The hearings ultimately lasted for 15 years and filled 41 volumes of text.