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This extensive and carefully preserved archive of the World Peace Movement contains a considerable body of printed matter detailing the activities of War Resisters' International (WRI). The WRI was created in 1921 at a meeting of British, Dutch, German and Austrian pacifists at The Hague. Active in 64 countries, the WRI has been prominent for more than 50 years in opposition to every form of war and organized violence, regardless of the policy objectives of the proponents of war. The collection includes: the minutes of council meetings from 1926, and the executive committee since 1956, together with the international minutes since 1956, as well as WRI pamphlets held in its archive, all its bulletins from 1923, its newsletter, its secretary's report, the file of press releases and its major journal War Resister.
Documents in this collection illustrate Cold War contexts, the role of the United States in Venezuela���s foreign affairs, and the centrality of oil in the Venezuelan economy.
The America First Committee (AFC), an anti-interventionist group formed in the early 1940s, advocated isolation from the war in Europe, and quickly gained a large following, with more than 800,000 members at its peak. However by 1941 it was increasingly seen as pro-German and anti-Semitic, particularly after a controversial speech by celebrated aviator and AFC supporter Charles Lindbergh. It dissolved shortly after the Pearl Harbor attacks and Hitler's declaration of war on America. This file, which covers the group's activity from 1937 to 1941, contains newspaper accounts, America First literature, speeches, letters, reports, and press releases. The group was investigated for possible communist infiltration.
These historical documents capture the hidden history of war-torn Europe and offer researchers, teachers and students many new perspectives on politics, diplomacy and everyday life in the German-occupied countries. Here is the complete record of political life in Occupied Western Europe available to the British Government during World War II from the original intelligence reports received by the British Foreign Office following the breakdown of normal diplomatic relations during wartime from class "FO 371" at The National Archives. The collection includes detailed information indexed by year and section, from the occupied states of Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway and the Vatican, and the neutral countries���Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. Some of the topics covered include the German attempts to win over important groups in occupied countries, the reaction to, and effect of, the German occupation, the propaganda struggle, the creation of the first resistance units, the repercussions of events such as the German invasion of Russia and essays on life under occupation in France, the Low Countries and Norway.
The State Department���s Executive Secretariat was responsible for creating a documentary record on various International crises during the 1960s. The documents in The Cyprus Crisis, 1967 were collected and collated from a variety of State Department sources and represent an administrative history of the crisis from the perspective of the U.S. government and its foreign policy.
Dr. Norman Bethune (���������; 1890���1939), a Canadian thoracic surgeon, is a national hero in China. A dedicated Communist, he helped the Loyalists in the Spanish Civil War. Two years later he went to China to help the Red Army. He died of blood poisoning while operating with the Chinese Eight Route Army, in November 1939. Mao Zedong, who only met Bethune once briefly, lionized him in an essay for his selfless dedication to others. This essay was included in the Red Book and Mao's collected works, and was mandatory reading in China. The Norman Bethune Papers consist of letter correspondences, newspaper and magazine clippings, photographs, pamphlets, and research materials selected from several sub-collections including Norman Bethune Collection, Bethune Foundation Fonds, Roderick Stewart Fonds, Louis and Irene Kon Fonds, and Maurice McGregor Fonds.
The Great Society was a set of domestic programs proposed or enacted on the initiative of President Lyndon B. Johnson. Two main goals of the Great Society social reforms were the elimination of poverty and racial injustice. Johnson launched an "unconditional war on poverty" in the first months of his presidency with the goal of eliminating hunger and deprivation from American life. The centerpiece of the War on Poverty was the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, which created an Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) to oversee a variety of community-based antipoverty programs. The OEO reflected a fragile consensus among policymakers that the best way to deal with poverty was not simply to raise the incomes of the poor but to help them better themselves through education, job training, and community development. Historians have suggested that the most important domestic achievement of the Great Society may have been its success in translating some of the demands of the civil rights movement into law. The collection contains correspondence, memoranda, reports, minutes of meetings, convention programs, and other records concerning the activities of Maurice Dawkins, Assistant Director for Civil Rights in the Office of Economic Opportunity. Reports, assessments, and background documents also include: Justice Department Task Force on Civil Rights, 1968; U.S. Commission on Civil Rights Report on Ghettoes, 1967; Poor People���s Campaign and OEO, 1968; civil rights and the anti-poverty war; application of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; Equal Employment Opportunities and the U.S. Civil Service Commission; OEO reports on Job Corps centers; U.S. Commission on Civil Rights hearings in Montgomery, Ala., for 1968; and 1967 Booz-Allen & Hamilton report on statewide education study in Mississippi. Files contain information regarding civil rights leaders such as Martin Luther King, Jr; Roy Wilkins; Whitney Young; and Andrew Young. This publication consists of documents comprising RG 381, Records of the Community Services Administration, Records of the Office of Civil Rights, Program Records of the Assistant Director for Civil Rights, November 1965-December 1968, MLR Entry 1005. All documents were originally filmed in their entirety.
City directories are among the most comprehensive sources of historical and personal information available. Their emphasis on ordinary people and the common-place event make them important in the study of American history and culture. One of the few means available for researchers to uncover information on specific individuals, these directories provides such information as: Addresses; City and county officers; Heads of families, firms and names of those doing business in the city; Lists of city residents; Occupations; and Street Directories. In addition, researchers can learn much about day-to-day life through analysis of information on churches, public and private schools, benevolent, literary and other associations, and banks. Finally, most directories include advertising, often illustrating the products being sold. This information lends valuable insight into the city���s lifestyles and illustrates popular trends.
Walter Chauncey Camp (1859-1925) was known as ���The Father of American Football���. He was a lover of physical fitness and a prolific letter writer who corresponded with Yale football stars, football coaches throughout the United States, authors, publishers, and prominent political U.S. political figures. In addition to extensive correspondence, the collection includes newspaper and magazine clippings which Walter Camp collected from the local press and from subscription clipping services across the country, photographs, and family papers.
John L. LeFlore (1903���1976) was the most significant figure in the struggle for black equality in Mobile, Alabama, throughout southern Alabama and Mississippi, and along the Florida Gulf Coast. Materials in the collection document LeFlore's prolific work in both public and private life. LeFlore was the first African American appointed to the Housing Board and, with J. Gary Cooper, was the first African American elected to the state legislature from Mobile since Reconstruction. The bulk of the materials date between 1961 and 1975.
The Written Rastafari Archives Project (WRAP) involves an exclusive collection of the most well-known Rastafari ephemerals ��� newsletters, magazines, newspapers, booklets, statements, letters, articles and assorted literature - written and published by a number of Rastafari Mansions, organizations, groups, and individuals over the past four decades. The provocative literary materials in this WRAP Collection provide an historical time stamp and current affairs commentary on the transitional period in the Rastafari Movement���s development ��� a period extending from the early 1970s through to the present. It is a forty year period during which the Rastafari Movement has been spreading across the Afro-Atlantic world in one form or another and becoming progressively globalized.
The Dutch East Indies experienced the replacement of company rule by Dutch government rule and the complete transformation of Java into a colonial society and the successful extension of colonial rule to Sumatra and the eastern archipelago during the early 20th century. The boundaries of the modern state of Indonesia were defined during this time and the process of generally exploitative political, military, and economic integration began. This collection comprises correspondence, studies and reports, cables, maps, and other kinds of documents related to U.S. consular activities. U.S. Consulates were listening posts reporting on the activities of the Dutch colonial government and the activities of the native peoples.
When George H. W. Bush became president in 1989 the United States had already begun to see a thawing of relations with the Soviet Union. President Bush spoke of softening relations in his inaugural address, claiming that "a new breeze is blowing," and adding that "great nations of the world are moving toward democracy through the door to freedom." This collection provides an in-depth analysis of the events leading up to the dissolution of the U.S.S.R. and its implications for U.S.-Soviet relations. The collection consists of three FOIA files from the Bush Library. The first file contains material related to the Moscow summit and the coup in August 1991 against Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev. This file contains cables sent to the White House situation room concerning day-by-day developments, and conversations between President Bush and other foreign leaders. The second file, which concerns the dissolution of the Soviet Union, highlights the Bush administration���s response to the dissolution and the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Documents here concern economic and humanitarian support, diplomatic recognition of the republics, aiding the transition to democratic governments and market economies, and defense issues, particularly the fate and control over the former Soviet Union's nuclear arsenal. The last FOIA file contains materials on the meeting between President Bush and President Mikhail Gorbachev in Malta (December 2���3, 1989) and the subsequent meetings between President Bush and NATO leaders in Brussels (December 3��� 4, 1989).��
The National Domestic Workers Union was founded in Atlanta in 1968 by Dorothy Bolden to help women engaged in household work. The collection consists of records of the United Domestic Workers Union (U.S) from 1965-1979. The correspondence (1965-1979) reflects Bolden's efforts in organizing the Union and includes such correspondents as Julian Bond, Senator Sam Nunn, Senator Herman Talmadge, Allen Williams, Andrew Young, and other Georgia and national political figures. The subject files (1967-1979) cover a myriad of topics illustrating the Union's involvement in the Black community, the Manpower Program, the Career Learning Center, the Homemaking Skills Training Program, Maids Honor Day, the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA), and various federal agencies. The collection contains minutes of the Union (1968-1971, 1978), the Citizen's Advisory Committee on Transportation (1970-1972), the Citizens Neighborhood Advisory Council (1972-1978), and MARTA (1973-1975). The collection also contains financial documents (1968-1979) including budgets, membership records, and files relating to Equal Opportunity Atlanta, which funded many of the Union's projects; and legal documents including agreements and contracts with Economic Opportunity Atlanta.
The records in this collection relate to political relations between China and Japan for the period 1930 -1939. The records are mostly instructions to and despatches from diplomatic and consular officials; the despatches are often accompanied by enclosures. Also included in these records are notes between the Department of State and foreign diplomatic representatives in the United States, and memorandums prepared by officials of the Department. There are records on: the Japanese occupation of Manchuria, beginning with the Mukden incident in 1931; military action at Shanghai in 1932; further Japanese political and economic penetration into China, 1935-1936; and the course of the undeclared war between Japan and China, 1937-1939.
The documents in this archive trace developments primarily during the administration of John F. Kennedy. Included here are plans by the U.S. Air Force, under an existing understanding between Quito and Washington, to commence photograph mapping operations in Central and Western Ecuador. Documents on commercial affairs include a report on the robust market of U.S. ophthalmic goods in Ecuador with continuing competition expected ���from French, German, Swiss, and Japanese products���; and a proposed visit by U.S. fisheries consultants (June 1962).
This collection comprises materials on Santo Trafficante, Jr., Meyer Lansky, and Lucky Luciano, including FBI surveillance and informant reports and correspondence from a variety of offices including, Miami, Tampa, Jacksonville, New York City, New Orleans, Atlanta, New Haven, New York City, Philadelphia, and Chicago; Justice Department memoranda, correspondence, and analyses; Newsclippings and articles; Domestic Intelligence Section reports; Transcriptions of wiretaps, typewriter tapes, and coded messages; Memoranda of conversations.
The complete official Soviet history of World War II, a monumental work of over 9,000 pages, this collection provides Western scholars with an opportunity to study what is considered one of the most significant historical documents produced in the Soviet Union. In addition to its importance in the war's historiography, this work is a valuable exposition of the development of a widely influential military doctrine.
The Palestine Statehood Committee Records, 1939-1949, "Concerning the campaigns for a Jewish Army; to save the Jewish people of Europe and the establishment of a Hebrew Republic in Palestine" consist of correspondence, memoranda, reports, publications, advertisements, and clippings related to five committees active in the United States from 1939 to 1949: the American Friends of a Jewish Palestine, the Committee for an Army of Stateless and Palestinian Jews, the Emergency Committee to Save the Jewish People of Europe, the American League for a Free Palestine, and the Hebrew Committee of National Liberation. Among these papers are selected materials spanning the years 1939-1942 on the activities of similar groups in Great Britain and France: the British League for a Free Palestine, and the Ligue fran��aise pour une Palestine libre. The papers have been organized into four series: I. Correspondence, II. Public Statements, Press Releases, Reports, and Clippings, III. Subject Files, IV. Files of The Answer, advertisements, and clippings. Each series contains papers in Hebrew as well as in English. From the contents of Series I and Series II can be derived a chronology of the activities of the committees and a background of events which influenced their actions. Series III provides additional information on individuals, organizations, and topics of importance from Series I and II. Series IV is a record of the publicity campaign directed by the committees in the United States.
The Custodial Detention Index (CDI), or Custodial Detention List was formed in 1939-1941, in the frame of a program called variously the "Custodial Detention Program" or "Alien Enemy Control." The Indexes have been arranged not only alphabetically but also geographically, designed to help identify potential threats to the United States from within immigrant communities as quickly as possible in times of national crisis.