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This collection of U.S. State Department Central Classified Files relating to internal affairs contains a wide range of materials from U.S. diplomats, including: Special reports on political and military affairs; Studies and statistics on socioeconomic matters; Interviews and minutes of meetings with foreign government officials; Full texts of important letters, instructions, and cables sent and received by U.S. diplomatic personnel; Voluminous reports and translations from foreign journals and newspapers; Countless translations of high-level foreign government documents, including speeches, memoranda, official reports, and transcripts of political meetings and assemblies.
This new series contains a collection of essential materials for the study of the early development of the Civil Rights Movement—concerned with the issues of Lynching, Segregation, Race riots, and Employment discrimination. FDR assumed the presidency of a nation in which white supremacy was a significant cultural and political force. Many states denied or severely restricted voting rights to African Americans and used their political power to further diminish their status and to deny them the benefits and opportunities of society. There was constant pressure on FDR to support anti-lynching legislation. But civil rights were a stepchild of the New Deal. Bent on economic recovery and reform and having to work through powerful Southern congressmen, whose seniority placed them at the head of key congressional committees, the president hesitated to place civil rights on his agenda. FDR’s record on civil rights has been the subject of much controversy. This new collection from FDR’s Official File provides insight into his political style and presents an instructive example of how he balanced moral preference with political realities.
This collection is from the Records of the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Military Operations (ODCSOPS) relating to the use of Federal marshals, U.S. Troops, and the federalized National Guard in Oxford, Mississippi, 1962-1963, on the occasion of James Meredith’s enrollment at the University of Mississippi. The records cover events such as the riots of September 30 and Governor Barnett’s efforts to obstruct Federal marshals, as well as daily events on campus and Meredith’s progress under integration. The files detail the extensive Federal involvement, including preparations for the military operation, Executive Orders , after action reports on the costs and lessons of Federal involvement, congressional correspondence on the military’s involvement, and effects on the media, public, and in particular, students and staff at Ole Miss.
Fight for Freedom, Inc. (FFF), a national citizen's organization established in April 1941, was a leading proponent of full American participation in World War II. An offshoot of the Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies, FFF was supported by average citizens, as well as prominent educators, labor leaders, authors and playwrights, clergy, stage and screen actors, newspaper men, and politicians. Pearl Harbor effectively ended the isolationist-interventionist debate, and by early 1942 FFF disbanded. Items in this collection consist of correspondence, subject files, memoranda, financial records, state and local organization materials, membership and contributor rosters, press releases and speeches, and printed ephemera such as posters, advertisements and display items.
This collection highlights the FBI’s efforts to disrupt the activities of the largest of the Puerto Rican independence parties, Partido Independentista Puertorriqueño, and compromise their effectiveness. In addition, these documents provide an insightful documentary history and analysis of support for commonwealth status in the country. These documents provide invaluable additions to the recorded history of Puerto Rico.
China in the Second World War is the focus of this collection. Documents include correspondence from the American Chamber of Commerce of Shanghai (September 1940); discussions calling for protection of American newspapers in China prior to United States entry into the war; letters to Sumner Welles, undersecretary of state; documents noting "unfavorable comments made by Japanese-controlled press ... concerning foreigners and policies of the United States and Great Britain" (June 1941); the correspondence of Everett F. Drumright, American consul (August 1942); samples of "Chinese Communist publications" supplied by the Embassy at Chungking under cover of dispatches (June 1943); among many other unique holdings. Topics include the wartime relations between the United States and China, with emphasis on China's military position and U.S. efforts to give military assistance; U.S. Army analysis of military operations; U.S. interests regarding Kuomintang-Communist relations and negotiations; and efforts to provide technical assistance to China and to facilitate greater cultural cooperation between the United States and China.
This collection in The National Archives at Kew covers British foreign affairs concerning the United States. The General Political Correspondence for the United States of America, in F.O. 371, consists primarily of communications between the Foreign Office and various British embassies and consulates in North America. Governmental, political, military, economic, and cultural topics concerning Anglo-American relations are chronicled.
The historical conflict between the Soviet Union and the United States, and the world events that served to influence relations between the two world powers are presented here. The documents in this substantial collection are drawn from major archival holdings and provide a rich sample of a half-century of Russian-American relations. They present to students of international affairs the raw material from which historical conclusions may be drawn on the most significant rivalry between two nations of the twentieth century.
United States-Vietnam Relations reproduces a 12-volume set prepared by the Department of Defense for the House Committee on the Armed Services, and printed by the Government Printing Office in 1971 (also known as the Hebert edition). This seminal publication relates how the U.S. was drawn into the war and gives accounts of crucial policy meetings and why decisions were made. When leaked to the press by Daniel Ellsberg in 1971, these papers caused an uproar, since they exposed U.S. involvement in Indochina much earlier than the public previously had assumed. The collection is a crucial acquisition for libraries with holdings in Asian and military studies and will be of interest to scholars and generalists alike.
This collection reproduces four manuals of instruction, investigative procedures, and guidelines issued to FBI agents in 1927, 1936, 1941, and 1978.
Spanning the years 1901-1918, this publication "devoted to the coal industry" provides a unique research opportunity. The coal industry was a major foundation for American industrialization. As a fuel source, coal provided a cheap and efficient source of power for steam engines, furnaces, and forges across America. As an economic pursuit, coal spurred innovations in technology, energy consumption, consumerism, and transportation. When mining companies brought increased sophistication to the organization of work in the mines, coal miners responded by organizing into trade unions. The influence of coal was so pervasive in America that by the advent of the twentieth century, it became a necessity of everyday life. This publication traces the expansion of the coal industry in the early twentieth century and brings to life the trials and tribulations of a burgeoning industry.
This collection reproduces the six principal MID files relating exclusively to China for the period 1918 to 1941 (general conditions, political conditions, economic conditions, army, navy, and aeronautics). Also included are documents created by other U.S. Government agencies and foreign governments from the records of the Military Intelligence Division.
This digital collection of Japanese relocation camp newspapers records the concerns and the day-to-day life of the interned Japanese-Americans. Although articles in these files frequently appear in Japanese, most of the papers are in English or in dual text. Many of the 25 titles constituting this collection are complete or substantially complete.
The Dean Gooderham Acheson (1893–1971) papers are a rich source of information on the policies, thoughts, and accomplishments of the secretary of state who guided American foreign policy from 1948-1953. The papers, which span the period 1898-1978, are especially full for the period after Acheson left public office in 1953 until his death in 1971. Acheson considered these papers to be his private papers, as opposed to the papers he created professionally as a lawyer and publicly as a civil servant. In his private life, Acheson was able to offer a candid view of events during the Cold War without having to temper his words due to political considerations.
In an atmosphere of hysteria following U.S. entry into the Second World War, and with the support of officials at all levels of the federal government, President Franklin D. Roosevelt authorized the internment of tens of thousands of American citizens of Japanese ancestry and resident aliens from Japan. Roosevelt’s Executive Order 9066, dated February 19, 1942, gave the U.S. military broad powers to ban any citizen from a wide coastal area stretching from the state of Washington to California and extending inland into southern Arizona. The order also authorized transporting these citizens to assembly centers hastily set up and governed by the military in Arizona, California, Oregon, and Washington. The same executive order, as well as other war-time orders and restrictions, were also applied to smaller numbers of residents of the United States of Italian or German descent. Yet while these individuals (and others from those groups) suffered grievous violations of their civil liberties, the war-time measures applied to Japanese Americans were harsher and more sweeping. Entire communities were uprooted by an executive order that targeted U.S. citizens and resident aliens. This publication consists of the documents from The Papers of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Small Collections, “Japanese American Internment Collections,” in the custody of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, N.Y.
David Bailie Warden (1778-1845) emigrated to the United States from Ireland as a young man and became a respected member of the cultural, scientific, and diplomatic circles of his adopted nation. His writings on and interest in politics, literature, medicine, chemistry, natural science, and education resulted in lively correspondence with many leaders in these fields -- among them Jefferson, Gallatin, Baron Alexander von Humboldt, Joseph Gay-Lussac, Washington Irving, and Alexander Dallas Bache. These letters and manuscripts are published here for the first time.
This collection reproduces the transcripts of all the press conferences held by the U.S. secretaries of state from Charles Evan Hughes (1862–1948; 44th Secretary of State, 1921–1925) through Henry Kissinger (b. 1923; 56th Secretary of State, 1973–1977). These conferences are an important record of official U.S. foreign policy and its global influence from the interwar years to the Cold War and détente.
After 40 years of failed Indian policy, the U.S. Senate called these hearings to see what could be done to improve matters. Under the Dawes Act (or General Allotment Act) of 1887, tribal lands previously held in common by Indian nations had been split up into small parcels for individual owners. The government had said this was because it wanted to encourage self-sufficient farming, but under the Dawes Act some parcels could be sold to non-Indians and Native American owners could lose their land if they became too poor to pay taxes or debts. Forty years later the Secretary of the Interior ordered an investigation into the consequences of the Dawes Act, and in 1928 its 160-page "Merriam Report" declared that allotment had been a disaster for Native American communities. Non-Indians had acquired almost half of all Indian lands in the U.S., and poverty, disease, and anger had all skyrocketed on reservations. In 1928 the Senate ordered the new hearings excerpted here, in order to figure out how to fix the situation. The hearings ultimately lasted for 15 years and filled 41 volumes of text.
This collection demonstrates how officials of the Economic Cooperation Administration (ECA) looked for economic and cultural opportunities to promote U.S.-China relations, despite the prevailing Cold War suspicions of any and all communists in the early Cold War era. Topics include ECA efforts to urge the U.S. State Department to pursue a friendly economic policy toward Communist China and not to jeopardize U.S.-China economic relations; ECA representation of the opinion of many American businessmen in the face of U.S. State Department and White House opposition; the failure of the Marshall Mission to China to politicize the U.S. economic policy toward China; the effectiveness of the ECA's implementation of aid to China; and information on the China Aid Act as part of Title IV of the Foreign Assistance Act. Documents include records of Donald S. Gilpatric, foreign service officer; regional offices correspondences; chronological files and cables; interoffice memos; subject files of the office of the director; among other records.
The USIA started in 1953 as an independent foreign affairs agency within the executive branch charged with the conduct of public diplomacy in support of U.S. foreign policy. Public diplomacy complements and reinforces traditional diplomacy by communicating directly with foreign publics through a wide range of international information, educational, and cultural exchange activities. This collection is from USIA's Office of Research and represents international public opinion and public diplomacy. Countries and/or territories within this collection may have some or all of the following information as part of the U.S. Information Agency’s collection of research: Cuban and Soviet domestic and international media news; foreign country politics and government, economy, and/or social conditions; foreign relations; relations with the U.S.; international trade relations; broadcast and print media; films and filmmaking; international news and news media information; international public opinion of Voice of America radio broadcasts; issues relating South and North Vietnam and the Vietnamese conflict; Bosnia War, 1991-1995; international public opinion on select world developments.